60.4% —or about 171,000 hectares—of Samoa is forested.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Samoa gained an average of 4,100 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual reforestation rate of 3.15%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change decreased by 100.0% to 0.00% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Samoa gained 31.5% of its forest cover, or around 41,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Samoa gained 23.9% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: 0.0% of Samoa is protected under IUCN categories I-V.


Samoa: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)283,000
Total Forest Area (ha)171,000
Percent Forest Cover60.42%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest-
Primary Forest, % total land-
Other wooded land (ha)22,000

Samoa : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Samoa: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)--
Modified natural (ha | %)110,00064.3%
Semi-natural (ha | %)29,00017.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)21,00012.3%
Production plantation (ha | %)11,0006.4%

Samoa: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)130,000
Forest 2000 (ha)171,000
Forest 2005 (ha)171,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)4,1003.15%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)41,00031.54%
Change in rate (%)-100.00%
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)-
Primary 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)22,000
Other 2005 (ha)22,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)32,000
Other 2005 (ha)32,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)130,000
Other 2000 (ha)161,000
Other 2005 (ha)161,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)3,1002.38%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)31,00023.85%
Change in rate (%)-100.00%

Samoa: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.00%

Samoa: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)98.2%
Private (%)1.8%
Other (%)-
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)90.9%
Private (%)9.1%
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)47.1%
Protection (%)20.4%
Conservation (%)16.7%
Social Services (%)4.2%
Multiple Services (%)5.0%
None of Unknown (%)6.7%

Samoa: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)-
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Samoa: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20051
World Heritage sites, 20040
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land0.0%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land0.00%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20040.49%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Samoa: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species0
endemic species
threatened species0
total species49
endemic species11
threatened species7
total species
endemic species0
threatened species3
total species0
endemic species0
threatened species1
Wildlife diversity
total species-
endemic species11
threatened species11

Samoa: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species-
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered-
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic0
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened2

Samoa: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)-
Below-ground biomass (M t)-
Dead wood (M t)-
Total (M t)-
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)-
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)-
Carbon in dead wood (M t)-
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)11
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)-
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)11
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)-
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$32,000
Wood fuel (US$)-
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)$32,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$n.s.
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employedn.s.

Samoa : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Samoa: Environment
Environment - current issuessoil erosion, deforestation, invasive species, overfishing
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardsoccasional typhoons; active volcanism

Samoa: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 21.2%
permanent crops: 24.38%
other: 54.42% (2001)
Natural resourceshardwood forests, fish, hydropower

Samoa: Economy
Economy - overview:The economy of Samoa has traditionally been dependent on development aid, family remittances from overseas, agriculture, and fishing. The country is vulnerable to devastating storms. Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labor force, and furnishes 90% of exports, featuring coconut cream, coconut oil, and copra. The manufacturing sector mainly processes agricultural products. The decline of fish stocks in the area is a continuing problem. Tourism is an expanding sector, accounting for 25% of GDP; about 88,000 tourists visited the islands in 2001. One factory in the Foreign Trade Zone employs 3,000 people to make automobile electrical harnesses for an assembly plant in Australia. The Samoan Government has called for deregulation of the financial sector, encouragement of investment, and continued fiscal discipline, meantime protecting the environment. Observers point to the flexibility of the labor market as a basic strength for future economic advances. Foreign reserves are in a relatively healthy state, the external debt is stable, and inflation is low.
GDP - per capita$5,600 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)5% (2002 est.)
Agriculture - productscoconuts, bananas, taro, yams, coffee, cocoa
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 14%, industry: 23%, services: 63% (2001 est.)
Industries food processing, building materials, auto parts
Economic aid - recipient$42.9 million (1995)
Debt - external$197 million (2000)
Population below poverty line (%)NA
Labor force - by occupation (%)NA

Samoa: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)177,287
Population growth rate (%) (2005)-0.23%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)60.4
Percent rural (2003)77.7%
Median age (years)total: 24.59 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)3.01 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Samoan 92.6%, Euronesians 7% (persons of European and Polynesian blood), Europeans 0.4%

[an error occurred while processing this directive] Samoa: Infrastructure
Telephones - main lines in use11,800 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular2,700 (2002)
Roadways (km)total: 790 km
paved: 332 km
unpaved: 458 km (1999 est.)

Samoa: Health
Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 70.72 years
male: 67.93 years
female: 73.65 years (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate27.71 deaths/1,000 live births
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)NA

Samoa : References & Data Sources

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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