STATISTICS: Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro

26.4% —or about 2,694,000 hectares—of Serbia and Montenegro is forested. Of this, 0.2% —or roughly 4,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Serbia and Montenegro gained an average of 9,000 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual reforestation rate of 0.35%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change decreased by 3.4% to 0.34% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Serbia and Montenegro gained 5.3% of its forest cover, or around 135,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Serbia and Montenegro gained 3.7% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Serbia and Montenegro has some 522 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.4% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 4.2% are threatened. Serbia and Montenegro is home to at least 4082 species of vascular plants. 3.2% of Serbia and Montenegro is protected under IUCN categories I-V.


Serbia and Montenegro: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)10,200,000
Total Forest Area (ha)2,694,000
Percent Forest Cover26.41%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)4,000
Primary Forest, % total forest0.15%
Primary Forest, % total land0.04%
Other wooded land (ha)808,000

Serbia and Montenegro : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)0%
Subtropical (% forest area)16%
Temperate (% forest area)84%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Serbia and Montenegro: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)4,0000.1%
Modified natural (ha | %)115,0004.3%
Semi-natural (ha | %)2,536,00094.1%
Production plantation (ha | %)39,0001.4%
Production plantation (ha | %)-0.0%

Serbia and Montenegro: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)2,559,000
Forest 2000 (ha)2,649,000
Forest 2005 (ha)2,694,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)9,0000.35%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)9,0000.34%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)135,0005.28%
Change in rate (%)-3.40%
Primary 1990 (ha)4,000
Primary 2000 (ha)4,000
Primary 2005 (ha)4,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Other 1990 (ha)820,000
Other 2000 (ha)812,000
Other 2005 (ha)808,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(800)-0.10%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(800)-0.10%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(12,000)-1.46%
Change in rate (%)0.99%
Other 1990 (ha)39,000
Other 2000 (ha)39,000
Other 2005 (ha)39,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)3,340,000
Other 2000 (ha)3,422,000
Other 2005 (ha)3,463,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)8,2000.25%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)8,2000.24%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)123,0003.68%
Change in rate (%)-2.40%

Serbia and Montenegro: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)4,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)4,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.04%

Serbia and Montenegro: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)54.0%
Private (%)46.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)73.0%
Private (%)27.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)-
Protection (%)-
Conservation (%)-
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)-
None of Unknown (%)-

Serbia and Montenegro: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.30%
Insects (ha)1.13%
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)0.04%

Serbia and Montenegro: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20055
World Heritage sites, 20044
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land3.2%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land1.42%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20041.78%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Serbia and Montenegro: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species10
endemic species0
threatened species1
total species381
endemic species2
threatened species10
total species96
endemic species0
threatened species10
total species35
endemic species0
threatened species1
Wildlife diversity
total species522
endemic species2
threatened species22

Serbia and Montenegro: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species48
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic0
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened1

Serbia and Montenegro: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)242
Below-ground biomass (M t)70
Dead wood (M t)44
Total (M t)356
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)121
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)35
Carbon in dead wood (M t)22
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)1,301
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)1,299
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)2,600
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)1
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)0
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)0
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$50,739,000
Wood fuel (US$)$19,485,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)$70,224,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$26
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed10,000

Serbia and Montenegro : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Serbia and Montenegro: Environment
Environment - current issuespollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardsdestructive earthquakes

Serbia and Montenegro: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 33.35%
permanent crops: 3.2%
other: 63.45% (2001)
Natural resourcesoil, gas, coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, hydropower, arable land

Serbia and Montenegro: Economy
Economy - overview:MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in October 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on an aggressive market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, a down-sized Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A World Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors' Conference held in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion for economic restructuring. An agreement rescheduling the country's $4.5 billion Paris Club government debts was concluded in November 2001 - it wrote off 66% of the debt - and the London Club of private creditors forgave $1.7 billion of debt, just over half the total owed, in July 2004. The smaller republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and continues to maintain its own central bank, uses the euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar as official currency, collects customs tariffs, and manages its own budget. Kosovo's economy continues to transition to a market-based system, and is largely dependent on the international community and the diaspora for financial and technical assistance. The euro and the Yugoslav dinar are both accepted currencies in Kosovo. While maintaining ultimate oversight, UNMIK continues to work with the European Union and Kosovo's local provisional government to accelerate economic growth, lower unemployment, and attract foreign investment to help Kosovo integrate into regional economic structures. The complexity of Serbia and Montenegro political relationships, slow progress in privatization, legal uncertainty over property rights, scarcity of foreign-investment and a substantial foreign trade deficit are holding back the economy. Arrangements with the IMF, especially requirements for fiscal discipline, are an important element in policy formation. Severe unemployment remains a key political economic problem for this entire region.
GDP - per capita$2,600 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)4% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productscereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 16.6%, industry: 25.5%, services: 57.9% (2005 est.)
Industries machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals
Economic aid - recipient$2 billion pledged in 2001 (disbursements to follow for several years)
Debt - external$15.43 billion (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)30% (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA

Serbia and Montenegro: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)10,829,175
Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.03%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)106.0
Percent rural (2003)48.0%
Median age (years)total: 36.79 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.67 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Serb 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%, Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3.3%, other 12.6% (1991)

[an error occurred while processing this directive] Serbia and Montenegro: Infrastructure
Telephones - main lines in use2,611,700 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular3,634,600 (2003)
Roadways (km)total: 45,290 km
paved: 28,261 km (including 374 km of expressways)
unpaved: 17,029 km (2002)

Serbia and Montenegro: Health
Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 74.73 years
male: 72.15 years
female: 77.51 years (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate12.89 deaths/1,000 live births
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.2% (2001 est.)

Serbia and Montenegro : References & Data Sources

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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