62.8% —or about 1,264,000 hectares—of Slovenia is forested. Of this, 9.4% —or roughly 119,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Slovenia gained an average of 5,100 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual reforestation rate of 0.43%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change decreased by 6.0% to 0.40% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Slovenia gained 6.4% of its forest cover, or around 76,000 hectares. Slovenia lost 56,000 hectares—1—of its primary forest cover during that time. Deforestation rates of primary cover have increased 88.9% since the close of the 1990s. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Slovenia gained 6.2% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Slovenia has some 484 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.2% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 3.3% are threatened. Slovenia is home to at least 3200 species of vascular plants, of which 0.7% are endemic. 14.4% of Slovenia is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Slovenia pictures


Slovenia: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)2,014,000
Total Forest Area (ha)1,264,000
Percent Forest Cover62.76%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)119,000
Primary Forest, % total forest9.41%
Primary Forest, % total land5.91%
Other wooded land (ha)44,000

Slovenia : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)0%
Subtropical (% forest area)12%
Temperate (% forest area)88%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Slovenia: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)119,0009.4%
Modified natural (ha | %)1,107,00087.6%
Semi-natural (ha | %)38,0003.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)-0.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)-0.0%

Slovenia: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)1,188,000
Forest 2000 (ha)1,239,000
Forest 2005 (ha)1,264,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)5,1000.43%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)5,0000.40%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)76,0006.40%
Change in rate (%)-6.00%
Primary 1990 (ha)63,000
Primary 2000 (ha)95,000
Primary 2005 (ha)119,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)3,2005.08%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)4,8005.05%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)56,00088.89%
Change in rate (%)-0.53%
Other 1990 (ha)44,000
Other 2000 (ha)44,000
Other 2005 (ha)44,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)-
Other 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)1,232,000
Other 2000 (ha)1,283,000
Other 2005 (ha)1,308,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)5,1000.41%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)5,0000.39%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)76,0006.17%
Change in rate (%)-5.86%

Slovenia: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)119,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)119,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)5.91%

Slovenia: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)27.7%
Private (%)72.3%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)4.5%
Private (%)95.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)54.3%
Protection (%)12.7%
Conservation (%)6.7%
Social Services (%)13.9%
Multiple Services (%)12.3%
None of Unknown (%)0.0%

Slovenia: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.00%
Insects (ha)0.00%
Diseases (ha)0.00%
Other (ha)0.08%

Slovenia: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20052
World Heritage sites, 20041
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land14.4%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land8.28%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20046.18%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Slovenia: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species18
endemic species0
threatened species2
total species350
endemic species1
threatened species7
total species87
endemic species0
threatened species7
total species29
endemic species0
threatened species0
Wildlife diversity
total species484
endemic species1
threatened species16

Slovenia: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species73
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic22
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened0

Slovenia: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)229
Below-ground biomass (M t)65
Dead wood (M t)48
Total (M t)342
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)115
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)32
Carbon in dead wood (M t)24
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)89
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)2,622
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)531
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)3,153
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)1
Plant products 2005
Food (t)550
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)1,200
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)20,000
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)2,300
Bush meat (t)1,000
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$93,947,000
Wood fuel (US$)$9,660,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)$41,870,000
Total value (US$)$145,477,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$115
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed3,000

Slovenia : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Slovenia: Environment
Environment - current issuesSava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Natural hazardsflooding and earthquakes

Slovenia: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 8.6%
permanent crops: 1.49%
other: 89.91% (2001)
Natural resourceslignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver, hydropower, forests

Slovenia: Economy
Economy - overview:Slovenia, with its historical ties to Western Europe, enjoys a GDP per capita substantially higher than that of the other transitioning economies of Central Europe. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. Privatization of the economy proceeded at an accelerated pace in 2002-05. Despite lackluster performance in Europe in 2001-05, Slovenia maintained moderate growth. Structural reforms to improve the business environment have allowed for greater foreign participation in Slovenia's economy and have helped to lower unemployment. Further measures to curb inflation are still needed. Corruption and the high degree of coordination between government, business, and central bank policy were issues of concern in the run-up to Slovenia's 1 May 2004 accession to the European Union. In mid-2004 Slovenia agreed to adopt the euro by 2007 and, therefore, must keep its debt levels, budget deficits, interest rates, and inflation levels within the EU's Maastrict criteria.
GDP - per capita$20,900 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)3.8% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productspotatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 2.8%, industry: 36.9%, services: 60.3% (2005 est.)
Industries ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Economic aid - recipientODA, $62 million (2000 est.)
Debt - external$20.57 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)NA
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 6%, industry 40%, services 55% (2002)

Slovenia: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)2,011,070
Population growth rate (%) (2005)-0.03%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)99.8
Percent rural (2003)49.2%
Median age (years)total: 40.23 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.24 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)

[an error occurred while processing this directive] Slovenia: Infrastructure
Telephones - main lines in use812,300 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular1,739,100 (2003)
Roadways (km)total: 20,250 km
paved: 20,250 km (including 456 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (2002)

Slovenia: Health
Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 76.14 years
male: 72.42 years
female: 80.1 years (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate4.45 deaths/1,000 live births
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

Slovenia : References & Data Sources

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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