STATISTICS: Solomon Islands

Solomon Islands

77.6% —or about 2,172,000 hectares—of Solomon Islands is forested.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Solomon Islands lost an average of 39,700 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 1.43%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 17.0% to 1.68% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Solomon Islands lost 21.5% of its forest cover, or around 596,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Solomon Islands lost 21.5% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Solomon Islands has some 402 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 20.9% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 11.7% are threatened. Solomon Islands is home to at least 3172 species of vascular plants, of which 0.9% are endemic. 0.0% of Solomon Islands is protected under IUCN categories I-V.


Solomon Islands: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)2,799,000
Total Forest Area (ha)2,172,000
Percent Forest Cover77.60%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest-
Primary Forest, % total land-
Other wooded land (ha)-

Solomon Islands : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Solomon Islands: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)--
Modified natural (ha | %)--
Semi-natural (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)--

Solomon Islands: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)2,768,000
Forest 2000 (ha)2,371,000
Forest 2005 (ha)2,172,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(39,700)-1.43%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(39,800)-1.68%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(596,000)-21.53%
Change in rate (%)17.04%
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)-
Primary 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)-
Other 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)-
Other 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)2,768,000
Other 2000 (ha)2,371,000
Other 2005 (ha)2,172,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(39,700)-1.43%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(39,800)-1.68%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(596,000)-21.53%
Change in rate (%)17.04%

Solomon Islands: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.00%

Solomon Islands: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)-
Private (%)-
Other (%)-
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)-
Private (%)-
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)-
Protection (%)-
Conservation (%)-
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)-
None of Unknown (%)-

Solomon Islands: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)-
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Solomon Islands: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20050
World Heritage sites, 20041
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land0.0%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land0.00%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20040.00%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Solomon Islands: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species12
endemic species1
threatened species2
total species248
endemic species52
threatened species21
total species72
endemic species17
threatened species20
total species70
endemic species14
threatened species4
Wildlife diversity
total species402
endemic species84
threatened species47

Solomon Islands: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species-
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic30
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened16

Solomon Islands: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)-
Below-ground biomass (M t)-
Dead wood (M t)-
Total (M t)-
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)-
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)-
Carbon in dead wood (M t)-
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)637
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)159
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)796
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)-
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)-
Wood fuel (US$)-
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)-
Total value ($USD/ha)$-
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed-

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Solomon Islands: Environment
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; many of the surrounding coral reefs are dead or dying
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardstyphoons, but rarely destructive; geologically active region with frequent earth tremors; volcanic activity

Solomon Islands: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 0.64%
permanent crops: 2%
other: 97.36% (2001)
Natural resourcesfish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates, lead, zinc, nickel

Solomon Islands: Economy
Economy - overview:The bulk of the population depends on agriculture, fishing, and forestry for at least part of their livelihood. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. Prior to the arrival of the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI), severe ethnic violence, the closing of key businesses, and an empty government treasury culminated in economic collapse. RAMSI has enabled a return to law and order, a new period of economic stability, and modest growth as the economy rebuilds.
GDP - per capita$1,700 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)5.8% (2003 est.)
Agriculture - productscocoa beans, coconuts, palm kernels, rice, potatoes, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs; timber; fish
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 42%, industry: 11%, services: 47% (2000 est.)
Industries fish (tuna), mining, timber
Economic aid - recipient$28 million annually, mainly from Australia (2003 est.)
Debt - external$180.4 million (2002)
Population below poverty line (%)NA
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 75%, industry 5%, services 20% (2000 est.)

Solomon Islands: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)538,032
Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.68%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)19.5
Percent rural (2003)83.5%
Median age (years)total: 18.63 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)4.04 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Melanesian 94.5%, Polynesian 3%, Micronesian 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 0.2% (1999 census)

[an error occurred while processing this directive] Solomon Islands: Infrastructure
Telephones - main lines in use6,600 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular1,000 (2002)
Roadways (km)total: 1,360 km
paved: 34 km
unpaved: 1,326 km (1999 est.)

Solomon Islands: Health
Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 72.66 years
male: 70.16 years
female: 75.28 years (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate21.29 deaths/1,000 live births
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)NA

Solomon Islands : References & Data Sources

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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