6.8% —or about 1,056,000 hectares—of Tunisia is forested.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Tunisia gained an average of 31,600 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual reforestation rate of 4.91%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change decreased by 58.8% to 2.02% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Tunisia gained 64.2% of its forest cover, or around 413,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Tunisia lost 2.3% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Tunisia has some 516 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.6% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 4.3% are threatened. Tunisia is home to at least 2196 species of vascular plants. 0.2% of Tunisia is protected under IUCN categories I-V.


Tunisia: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)15,536,000
Total Forest Area (ha)1,056,000
Percent Forest Cover6.80%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest-
Primary Forest, % total land-
Other wooded land (ha)170,000

Tunisia : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)0%
Subtropical (% forest area)100%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Tunisia: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)--
Modified natural (ha | %)320,00030.3%
Semi-natural (ha | %)238,00022.5%
Production plantation (ha | %)150,00014.2%
Production plantation (ha | %)348,00033.0%

Tunisia: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)643,000
Forest 2000 (ha)959,000
Forest 2005 (ha)1,056,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)31,6004.91%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)19,4002.02%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)413,00064.23%
Change in rate (%)-58.84%
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)-
Primary 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)328,000
Other 2000 (ha)177,000
Other 2005 (ha)170,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(15,100)-4.60%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(1,400)-0.79%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(158,000)-48.17%
Change in rate (%)-82.82%
Other 1990 (ha)226,000
Other 2000 (ha)423,000
Other 2005 (ha)498,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)19,7008.72%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)15,0003.55%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)272,000120.35%
Change in rate (%)-59.32%
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)745,000
Other 2000 (ha)713,000
Other 2005 (ha)728,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(3,200)-0.43%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)3,0000.42%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(17,000)-2.28%
Change in rate (%)-197.96%

Tunisia: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.00%

Tunisia: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)94.4%
Private (%)5.6%
Other (%)-
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)4.0%
Private (%)96.0%
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)23.0%
Protection (%)42.0%
Conservation (%)3.7%
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)31.3%
None of Unknown (%)-

Tunisia: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.10%
Insects (ha)4.69%
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)0.00%

Tunisia: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20051
World Heritage sites, 20048
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land0.2%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land0.17%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20040.00%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Tunisia: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species8
endemic species0
threatened species0
total species360
endemic species0
threatened species9
total species78
endemic species1
threatened species10
total species70
endemic species2
threatened species3
Wildlife diversity
total species516
endemic species3
threatened species22

Tunisia: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species20
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic0
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened0

Tunisia: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)15
Below-ground biomass (M t)5
Dead wood (M t)-
Total (M t)-
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)7
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)3
Carbon in dead wood (M t)-
Carbon in litter (M t)1
Soil carbon (M t)38
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)223
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)51
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)274
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)1
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)420,000
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)20,000
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)11,015
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)80
Bush meat (t)200
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)399
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$7,200,000
Wood fuel (US$)$380,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)$120,232,000
Total value (US$)$127,812,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$121
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed40,000

Tunisia : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Tunisia: Environment
Environment - current issuestoxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and poses health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Natural hazardsNA

Tunisia: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 17.86%
permanent crops: 13.74%
other: 68.4% (2001)
Natural resourcespetroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt

Tunisia: Economy
Economy - overview:Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important agricultural, mining, energy, tourism, and manufacturing sectors. Governmental control of economic affairs while still heavy has gradually lessened over the past decade with increasing privatization, simplification of the tax structure, and a prudent approach to debt. Progressive social policies also have helped raise living conditions in Tunisia relative to the region. Real growth slowed to a 15-year low of 1.9% in 2002 because of agricultural drought and lackluster tourism. Better rains in 2003 through 2005, however, helped push GDP growth above 5% for these years. Tourism also recovered after the end of combat operations in Iraq. Tunisia is gradually removing barriers to trade with the European Union. Broader privatization, further liberalization of the investment code to increase foreign investment, improvements in government efficiency, and reduction of the trade deficit are among the challenges ahead.
GDP - per capita$7,600 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)4.9% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productsolives, olive oil, grain, dairy products, tomatoes, citrus fruit, beef, sugar beets, dates, almonds
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 13.8%, industry: 30.7%, services: 55.6% (2005 est.)
Industries petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, agribusiness, beverages
Economic aid - recipient$114.6 million (2002)
Debt - external$18.91 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)7.6% (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)services 55%, industry 23%, agriculture 22% (1995 est.)

Tunisia: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)10,074,951
Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.99%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)64.8
Percent rural (2003)36.3%
Median age (years)total: 27.29 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.75 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%

Largest Cities in Tunisia

Cities and urban areas in Tunisia with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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