STATISTICS: Bangladesh


6.7% —or about 871,000 hectares—of Bangladesh is forested.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Bangladesh gained an average of 200 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual reforestation rate of 0.02%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change decreased by 1397.1% to 0.29% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Bangladesh lost 1.3% of its forest cover, or around 11,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Bangladesh lost 5.4% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Bangladesh has some 871 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 1.1% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 7.5% are threatened. Bangladesh is home to at least 5000 species of vascular plants. 0.0% of Bangladesh is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Bangladesh Environmental profile


Bangladesh: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)13,017,000
Total Forest Area (ha)871,000
Percent Forest Cover6.69%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest-
Primary Forest, % total land-
Other wooded land (ha)58,000

Bangladesh : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Bangladesh: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)--
Modified natural (ha | %)592,00068.0%
Semi-natural (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)195,00022.4%
Production plantation (ha | %)84,0009.6%

Bangladesh: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)882,000
Forest 2000 (ha)884,000
Forest 2005 (ha)871,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)2000.02%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(2,600)-0.29%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(11,000)-1.25%
Change in rate (%)-1397.06%
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)-
Primary 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)44,000
Other 2000 (ha)53,000
Other 2005 (ha)58,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)9002.05%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)1,0001.89%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)14,00031.82%
Change in rate (%)-7.76%
Other 1990 (ha)239,000
Other 2000 (ha)276,000
Other 2005 (ha)279,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)3,7001.55%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)6000.22%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)40,00016.74%
Change in rate (%)-85.96%
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)687,000
Other 2000 (ha)661,000
Other 2005 (ha)650,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(2,600)-0.38%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(2,200)-0.33%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(37,000)-5.39%
Change in rate (%)-12.06%

Bangladesh: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.00%

Bangladesh: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)98.2%
Private (%)1.8%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)-
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)31.7%
Protection (%)7.8%
Conservation (%)20.9%
Social Services (%)1.1%
Multiple Services (%)38.5%
None of Unknown (%)0.0%

Bangladesh: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)-
Insects (ha)0.00%
Diseases (ha)0.00%
Other (ha)-

Bangladesh: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20052
World Heritage sites, 20043
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land0.0%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land0.00%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20040.46%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Bangladesh: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species23
endemic species2
threatened species0
total species604
endemic species8
threatened species23
total species131
endemic species0
threatened species22
total species113
endemic species0
threatened species20
Wildlife diversity
total species871
endemic species10
threatened species65

Bangladesh: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species1,074
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered4
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic0
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened12

Bangladesh: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)51
Below-ground biomass (M t)12
Dead wood (M t)7
Total (M t)70
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)25
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)6
Carbon in dead wood (M t)3
Carbon in litter (M t)1
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)253
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)1,016
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)1,269
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)4
Plant products 2005
Food (t)21,412
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)12,947
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)2,237
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)1,213
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)90
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)23,686
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$21,253,000
Wood fuel (US$)$2,321,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)$199,757,000
Total value (US$)$223,331,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$256
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed98,000

Bangladesh : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Bangladesh: Environment
Environment - current issuesmany people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardsdroughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season

Bangladesh: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 62.11%
permanent crops: 3.07%
other: 34.82% (2001)
Natural resourcesnatural gas, arable land, timber, coal

Bangladesh: Economy
Economy - overview:Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated, and ill-governed nation. Although half of GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Economic reform is stalled in many instances by political infighting and corruption at all levels of government. Progress also has been blocked by opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups. The BNP government, led by Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA, has the parliamentary strength to push through needed reforms, but the party's political will to do so has been lacking in key areas. One encouraging note: growth has been a steady 5% for the past several years.
GDP - per capita$2,100 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)5.2% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productsrice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 20.5%, industry: 26.7%, services: 52.8% (2004 est.)
Industries cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar
Economic aid - recipient$1.575 billion (2000 est.)
Debt - external$21.25 billion (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)45% (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 63%, industry 11%, services 26% (FY95/96)

Bangladesh: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)144,319,628
Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.09%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)1,077.7
Percent rural (2003)75.8%
Median age (years)total: 21.87 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)3.13 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)

Largest Cities in Bangladesh

Cities and urban areas in Bangladesh with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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