STATISTICS: Japan


Japan

68.2% —or about 24,868,000 hectares—of Japan is forested. Of this, 18.5% —or roughly 4,591,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Japan lost an average of 7,400 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 0.03%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change decreased by 78.3% to 0.01% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Japan lost 0.3% of its forest cover, or around 82,000 hectares. Japan lost 827,000 hectares—0—of its primary forest cover during that time. Deforestation rates of primary cover have increased 22.0% since the close of the 1990s. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Japan lost 0.8% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Japan has some 919 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 19.3% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 13.2% are threatened. Japan is home to at least 5565 species of vascular plants, of which 35.9% are endemic. 8.4% of Japan is protected under IUCN categories I-V.






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Japan: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)36,450,000
Total Forest Area (ha)24,868,000
Percent Forest Cover68.22%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)4,591,000
Primary Forest, % total forest18.46%
Primary Forest, % total land12.60%
Other wooded land (ha)-


Japan : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)0%
Subtropical (% forest area)54%
Temperate (% forest area)46%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%


Japan: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)4,591,00018.5%
Modified natural (ha | %)9,955,00040.0%
Semi-natural (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)10,321,00041.5%


Japan: Change in Forest Cover
TOTAL FOREST COVER
Forest 1990 (ha)24,950,000
Forest 2000 (ha)24,876,000
Forest 2005 (ha)24,868,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(7,400)-0.03%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(1,600)-0.01%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(82,000)-0.33%
Change in rate (%)-78.31%
PRIMARY FOREST COVER
Primary 1990 (ha)3,764,000
Primary 2000 (ha)4,054,000
Primary 2005 (ha)4,591,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)29,0000.77%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)107,4002.65%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)827,00021.97%
Change in rate (%)243.85%
OTHER WOODED LAND
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)-
Other 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
PLANTATIONS
Other 1990 (ha)10,287,000
Other 2000 (ha)10,331,000
Other 2005 (ha)10,321,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)4,4000.04%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(2,000)-0.02%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)34,0000.33%
Change in rate (%)-145.26%
TOTAL DEGRADATION/CONSERVSION
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)14,663,000
Other 2000 (ha)14,545,000
Other 2005 (ha)14,547,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(11,800)-0.08%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)4000.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(116,000)-0.79%
Change in rate (%)-103.42%


Japan: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)4,591,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)4,591,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)12.60%


Japan: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)41.9%
Private (%)58.1%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)-
Private (%)-
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)0.0%
Protection (%)0.0%
Conservation (%)0.0%
Social Services (%)0.0%
Multiple Services (%)100.0%
None of Unknown (%)0.0%


Japan: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.01%
Insects (ha)0.00%
Diseases (ha)0.00%
Other (ha)0.11%


Japan: Protected areas
4
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 200513
World Heritage sites, 200411
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land8.4%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land1.69%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20046.58%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20045.55%


Japan: Biodiversity - Wildlife
Amphibians
total species64
endemic species45
threatened species20
Birds
total species592
endemic species55
threatened species53
Mammals
total species171
endemic species43
threatened species37
Reptiles
total species92
endemic species34
threatened species11
Wildlife diversity
total species919
endemic species177
threatened species121


Japan: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
54.70%
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
67.60%
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species1,327
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered67
Endangered43
Vulnerable87
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Total5565
Number endemic2000
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened12


Japan: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)3,052
Below-ground biomass (M t)733
Dead wood (M t)-
Total (M t)-
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)1,526
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)366
Carbon in dead wood (M t)-
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
1990-200074,200
2000-200579,200
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
1990-20003.02
2000-20053.19
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)22,334
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)-
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)22,334
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)1
Plant products 2005
Food (t)4,615
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)44,394
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$2,864,500,000
Wood fuel (US$)-
Non-wood forest products (US$)$34,506,000
Total value (US$)$2,899,006,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$117
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed63,000


Japan : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production124
Imports1
Exports0
Consumption125
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production15,092
Imports12,662
Exports4
Consumption27,750
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production14,402
Imports8,584
Exports22
Consumption22,964
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production4,893
Imports6,342
Exports44
Consumption11,191
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Production10,663
Imports2,428
Exports107
Consumption12,984
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Production30,686
Imports1,805
Exports665
Consumption31,826
Japan: Environment
Environment - current issuesair pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japan is one of the largest consumers of fish and tropical timber, contributing to the depletion of these resources in Asia and elsewhere
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
Natural hazardsmany dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; tsunamis; typhoons


Japan: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 12.19%
permanent crops: 0.96%
other: 86.85% (2001)
Natural resourcesnegligible mineral resources, fish


Japan: Economy
Economy - overview:Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation (1% of GDP) helped Japan advance with extraordinary rapidity to the rank of third largest economy in the world after the US and China, measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. Japan is the second largest economy, measured on an exchange rate basis. One notable characteristic of the economy is the working together of manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors in closely-knit groups called keiretsu. A second basic feature has been the guarantee of lifetime employment for a substantial portion of the urban labor force. Both features are now eroding. Japan's industrial sector is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. The tiny agricultural sector is highly subsidized and protected, with crop yields among the highest in the world. Usually self sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 50% of its requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch. For three decades, overall real economic growth had been spectacular: a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s, and a 4% average in the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s, averaging just 1.7%, largely because of the after effects of overinvestment during the late 1980s and contractionary domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets and to force a restructuring of the economy. From 2000 to 2003, government efforts to revive economic growth met with little success and were further hampered by the slowing of the US, European, and Asian economies. In 2004 and 2005, growth improved and the lingering fears of deflation in prices and economic activity lessened. Japan's huge government debt, which totals 170% of GDP, and the aging of the population are two major long-run problems. A rise in taxes could be viewed as endangering the revival of growth. Internal conflict over the proper way to reform the financial system will continue as Japan Post's banking, insurance, and delivery services undergo privatization between 2007 and 2017.
GDP - per capita$30,400 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)2.1% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productsrice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit, pork, poultry, dairy products, eggs, fish
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 1.3%, industry: 25.3%, services: 73.5% (2005 est.)
Industries among world's largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, processed foods
Population below poverty line (%)NA
Debt - external$1.545 trillion (31 December 2004)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 4.6%, industry 27.8%, services 67.7% (2004)


Japan: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)127,417,244
Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.05%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)340.0
Percent rural (2003)34.6%
Median age (years)total: 42.64 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.39 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Japanese 99%, others 1% (Korean 511,262, Chinese 244,241, Brazilian 182,232, Filipino 89,851, other 237,914)


Largest Cities in Japan

Cities and urban areas in Japan with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
TokyoJapan802750031036900
YokohamaJapan35523003552300
OsakaJapan264700017592400
NagoyaJapan22580008595400
SapporoJapan17797002249900
KyotoJapan14925001492500
KobeJapan14674001467400
FukuokaJapan13342004186300
KawasakiJapan12920001292000
HiroshimaJapan11311001639100
KitakyushuJapan10588001058800
SendaiJapan10154001312900
ChibaJapan932800932800
SakaiJapan816700816700
KumamotoJapan658600658600
OkayamaJapan6279001270100
SagamiharaJapan612900612900
FunabashiJapan588800588800
HamamatsuJapan5805001093000
KagoshimaJapan546500546500
HigashiosakaJapan526100526100
HachiojiJapan507100507100
AmagasakiJapan503600503600
MatsudoJapan502400502400
NiigataJapan499200499200
UrawaJapan497600497600
KawaguchiJapan492700492700
ShizuokaJapan4900001211600
HimejiJapan485400485400
IchikawaJapan479600479600
OmiyaJapan476100476100
KanazawaJapan465400465400
YokosukaJapan464200464200
MatsuyamaJapan461700461700
UtsunomiyaJapan454400454400
NagasakiJapan431900431900
OitaJapan428100428100
WakayamaJapan393300494400
FukuyamaJapan382000382000
ToyohashiJapan370300572400
NaganoJapan369000369000
AsahikawaJapan365200365200
IwakiJapan364900364900
TakamatsuJapan336300336300
KoriyamaJapan330800330800
ToyamaJapan329900329900
NahaJapan321500321500
KochiJapan320500320500
AkitaJapan306500306500
MiyazakiJapan304100304100
HakodateJapan302700302700
MaebashiJapan294900294900
AomoriJapan294100294100
FukushimaJapan289200289200
MoriokaJapan286300286300
TokushimaJapan269400269400
MitoJapan260400260400
FukuiJapan259700259700
YamagataJapan253900253900
TakasakiJapan246600246600
KurumeJapan243400243400
HachinoheJapan242600242600
SaseboJapan241100241100
FujiJapan236900236900
NumazuJapan219400437600
OdawaraJapan214900214900
KureJapan213700213700
MatsumotoJapan211500211500
HitachiJapan210600210600
KofuJapan207500207500
KushiroJapan201900201900
NagaokaJapan192200192200
SuzukaJapan186100186100
HirosakiJapan177900177900
TakaokaJapan176000176000
ObihiroJapan173900173900
UbeJapan173500173500
AshikagaJapan173100173100
SagaJapan172400172400
TomakomaiJapan171500171500
TsuJapan168900168900
OyamaJapan156700156700
KatsutaJapan152000152000
OmutaJapan150700150700




 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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