18.4% —or about 3,627,000 hectares—of Uganda is forested.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Uganda lost an average of 86,500 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 1.76%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 21.2% to 2.13% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Uganda lost 26.3% of its forest cover, or around 1,297,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Uganda lost 24.7% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Uganda has some 1592 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 1.1% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 3.1% are threatened. Uganda is home to at least 4900 species of vascular plants. 7.3% of Uganda is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Uganda Environmental profile


Uganda: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)19,710,000
Total Forest Area (ha)3,627,000
Percent Forest Cover18.40%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest-
Primary Forest, % total land-
Other wooded land (ha)1,150,000

Uganda : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Uganda: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)--
Modified natural (ha | %)3,591,00099.0%
Semi-natural (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)36,0001.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)--

Uganda: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)4,924,000
Forest 2000 (ha)4,059,000
Forest 2005 (ha)3,627,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(86,500)-1.76%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(86,400)-2.13%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(1,297,000)-26.34%
Change in rate (%)21.17%
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)-
Primary 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)1,404,000
Other 2000 (ha)1,235,000
Other 2005 (ha)1,150,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(16,900)-1.20%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(17,000)-1.38%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(254,000)-18.09%
Change in rate (%)14.36%
Other 1990 (ha)33,000
Other 2000 (ha)35,000
Other 2005 (ha)36,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)2000.61%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)2000.57%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)3,0009.09%
Change in rate (%)-5.71%
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)6,295,000
Other 2000 (ha)5,259,000
Other 2005 (ha)4,741,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(103,600)-1.65%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(103,600)-1.97%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(1,554,000)-24.69%
Change in rate (%)19.70%

Uganda: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.00%

Uganda: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)29.8%
Private (%)70.2%
Other (%)-
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)20.8%
Private (%)79.2%
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)14.9%
Protection (%)-
Conservation (%)14.8%
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)-
None of Unknown (%)70.2%

Uganda: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)-
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Uganda: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20052
World Heritage sites, 20043
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land7.3%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land3.18%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20044.14%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Uganda: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species52
endemic species2
threatened species6
total species1015
endemic species7
threatened species15
total species360
endemic species6
threatened species29
total species165
endemic species2
threatened species0
Wildlife diversity
total species1592
endemic species17
threatened species50

Uganda: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species-
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered3
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic0
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened38

Uganda: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)218
Below-ground biomass (M t)59
Dead wood (M t)39
Total (M t)315
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)109
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)29
Carbon in dead wood (M t)19
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)4,408
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)42,041
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)46,449
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)30
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)-
Wood fuel (US$)$70,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)$70,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$n.s.
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed2,000

Uganda : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Uganda: Environment
Environment - current issuesdraining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; poaching is widespread
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Natural hazardsNA

Uganda: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 25.88%
permanent crops: 10.65%
other: 63.47% (2001)
Natural resourcescopper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land

Uganda: Economy
Economy - overview:Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. During 1990-2001, the economy turned in a solid performance based on continued investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, reduced inflation, gradually improved domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Corruption within the government and slippage in the government's determination to press reforms raise doubts about the continuation of strong growth. In 2000, Uganda qualified for enhanced Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief worth $1.3 billion and Paris Club debt relief worth $145 million. These amounts combined with the original HIPC debt relief added up to about $2 billion. Growth for 2001-02 was solid despite continued decline in the price of coffee, Uganda's principal export. Growth in 2003-05 reflected an upturn in Uganda's export markets.
GDP - per capita$1,700 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)9% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, cut flowers
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 31.1%, industry: 22.2%, services: 46.9% (2004 est.)
Industries sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement, steel production
Economic aid - recipient$959 million (2003)
Debt - external$4.949 billion (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)35% (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 82%, industry 5%, services 13% (1999 est.)

Uganda: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)27,269,482
Population growth rate (%) (2005)3.31%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)136.5
Percent rural (2003)87.8%
Median age (years)total: 14.97 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)6.74 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Baganda 17%, Ankole 8%, Basoga 8%, Iteso 8%, Bakiga 7%, Langi 6%, Rwanda 6%, Bagisu 5%, Acholi 4%, Lugbara 4%, Batoro 3%, Bunyoro 3%, Alur 2%, Bagwere 2%, Bakonjo 2%, Jopodhola 2%, Karamojong 2%, Rundi 2%, non-African (European, Asian, Arab) 1%, other 8%

Largest Cities in Uganda

Cities and urban areas in Uganda with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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