45.1% —or about 8,673,000 hectares—of Senegal is forested. Of this, 18.4% —or roughly 1,598,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Senegal lost an average of 45,000 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 0.48%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 5.1% to 0.51% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Senegal lost 7.2% of its forest cover, or around 675,000 hectares. Senegal lost -161,000 hectares—0—of its primary forest cover during that time. Deforestation rates of primary cover have decreased 9.2% since the close of the 1990s. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Senegal lost 7.9% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Senegal has some 927 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.5% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 2.4% are threatened. Senegal is home to at least 2086 species of vascular plants, of which 1.2% are endemic. 10.7% of Senegal is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Senegal Environmental profile


Senegal: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)19,253,000
Total Forest Area (ha)8,673,000
Percent Forest Cover45.05%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)1,598,000
Primary Forest, % total forest18.42%
Primary Forest, % total land8.30%
Other wooded land (ha)5,001,000

Senegal : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Senegal: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)1,598,00018.4%
Modified natural (ha | %)6,710,00077.4%
Semi-natural (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)332,0003.8%
Production plantation (ha | %)33,0000.4%

Senegal: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)9,348,000
Forest 2000 (ha)8,898,000
Forest 2005 (ha)8,673,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(45,000)-0.48%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(45,000)-0.51%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(675,000)-7.22%
Change in rate (%)5.06%
Primary 1990 (ha)1,759,000
Primary 2000 (ha)1,653,000
Primary 2005 (ha)1,598,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(10,600)-0.60%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(11,000)-0.67%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(161,000)-9.15%
Change in rate (%)10.43%
Other 1990 (ha)5,301,000
Other 2000 (ha)5,101,000
Other 2005 (ha)5,001,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(20,000)-0.38%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(20,000)-0.39%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(300,000)-5.66%
Change in rate (%)3.92%
Other 1990 (ha)205,000
Other 2000 (ha)306,000
Other 2005 (ha)365,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)10,1004.93%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)11,8003.86%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)160,00078.05%
Change in rate (%)-21.73%
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)14,444,000
Other 2000 (ha)13,693,000
Other 2005 (ha)13,309,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(75,100)-0.52%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(76,800)-0.56%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(1,135,000)-7.86%
Change in rate (%)7.87%

Senegal: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)1,598,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)600,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)2,198,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)11.42%

Senegal: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)99.9%
Private (%)0.1%
Other (%)0.0%
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)59.6%
Protection (%)0.4%
Conservation (%)18.1%
Social Services (%)0.0%
Multiple Services (%)21.9%
None of Unknown (%)-

Senegal: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)1.09%
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Senegal: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20054
World Heritage sites, 20044
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land10.7%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land4.72%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20045.93%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Senegal: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species32
endemic species0
threatened species0
total species612
endemic species1
threatened species5
total species191
endemic species1
threatened species11
total species92
endemic species3
threatened species6
Wildlife diversity
total species927
endemic species5
threatened species22

Senegal: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species315
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic26
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened7

Senegal: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)566
Below-ground biomass (M t)175
Dead wood (M t)28
Total (M t)769
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)283
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)88
Carbon in dead wood (M t)14
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)10
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)5,100
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)5,110
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)2
Plant products 2005
Food (t)5,000
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)400
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)10
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)205
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)1,200
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)725,000
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)900
Bush meat (t)90
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$601,000
Wood fuel (US$)$16,320,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)$3,199,000
Total value (US$)$20,120,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$2
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed13,000

Senegal : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Senegal: Environment
Environment - current issueswildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Natural hazardslowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts

Senegal: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 12.78%
permanent crops: 0.21%
other: 87.01% (2001)
Natural resourcesfish, phosphates, iron ore

Senegal: Economy
Economy - overview:In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and ambitious economic reform program with the support of the international donor community. This reform began with a 50% devaluation of Senegal's currency, the CFA franc, which was linked at a fixed rate to the French franc. Government price controls and subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to the reform program, with real growth in GDP averaging over 5% annually during 1995-2004. Annual inflation had been pushed down to the low single digits. As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff and a more stable monetary policy. Senegal still relies heavily upon outside donor assistance, however. Under the IMF's Highly Indebted Poor Countries debt relief program, Senegal will benefit from eradication of two-thirds of its bilateral, multilateral, and private sector debt.
GDP - per capita$1,800 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)6.1% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productspeanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 16.1%, industry: 21.4%, services: 62.5% (2005 est.)
Industries agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
Economic aid - recipient$449.6 million (2003 est.)
Debt - external$3.61 billion (2003 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)54% (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 77% (1990 est.)

Senegal: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)11,126,832
Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.48%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)58.0
Percent rural (2003)50.4%
Median age (years)total: 18.15 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)4.75 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%

Largest Cities in Senegal

Cities and urban areas in Senegal with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.


 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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