28.4% —or about 67,546,000 hectares—of Sudan is forested. Of this, 20.0% —or roughly 13,509,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Sudan lost an average of 589,000 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 0.77%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 8.4% to 0.84% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Sudan lost 11.6% of its forest cover, or around 8,835,000 hectares. Sudan lost -1,767,000 hectares—0—of its primary forest cover during that time. Deforestation rates of primary cover have decreased 11.6% since the close of the 1990s. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Sudan lost 11.6% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Sudan has some 1431 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 1.6% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 2.0% are threatened. Sudan is home to at least 3137 species of vascular plants, of which 1.6% are endemic. 3.5% of Sudan is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Sudan Environmental profile


Sudan: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)237,600,000
Total Forest Area (ha)67,546,000
Percent Forest Cover28.43%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)13,509,000
Primary Forest, % total forest20.00%
Primary Forest, % total land5.69%
Other wooded land (ha)-

Sudan : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Sudan: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)13,509,00020.0%
Modified natural (ha | %)47,282,00070.0%
Semi-natural (ha | %)1,351,0002.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)4,728,0007.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)675,0001.0%

Sudan: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)76,381,000
Forest 2000 (ha)70,491,000
Forest 2005 (ha)67,546,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(589,000)-0.77%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(589,000)-0.84%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(8,835,000)-11.57%
Change in rate (%)8.36%
Primary 1990 (ha)15,276,000
Primary 2000 (ha)14,098,000
Primary 2005 (ha)13,509,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(117,800)-0.77%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(117,800)-0.84%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(1,767,000)-11.57%
Change in rate (%)8.36%
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)54,153,000
Other 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)6,111,000
Other 2000 (ha)5,639,000
Other 2005 (ha)5,404,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(47,200)-0.77%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(47,000)-0.83%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(707,000)-11.57%
Change in rate (%)7.91%
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)70,270,000
Other 2000 (ha)119,005,000
Other 2005 (ha)62,142,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)4,873,5006.94%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(11,372,600)-9.56%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(8,128,000)-11.57%
Change in rate (%)-237.79%

Sudan: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)13,509,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)13,509,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)5.69%

Sudan: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)97.7%
Private (%)2.3%
Other (%)-
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)97.7%
Private (%)2.3%
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)44.9%
Protection (%)2.6%
Conservation (%)12.7%
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)-
None of Unknown (%)39.9%

Sudan: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)-
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Sudan: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20050
World Heritage sites, 20040
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land3.5%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land3.38%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20040.06%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Sudan: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species15
endemic species1
threatened species0
total species952
endemic species3
threatened species10
total species302
endemic species12
threatened species16
total species162
endemic species7
threatened species2
Wildlife diversity
total species1431
endemic species23
threatened species28

Sudan: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species533
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered1
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic50
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened17

Sudan: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)2,235
Below-ground biomass (M t)827
Dead wood (M t)337
Total (M t)3,398
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)1,117
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)413
Carbon in dead wood (M t)168
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)2,716
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)19,514
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)22,230
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)2
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)663,712
Hides, skins and trophies (units)1,388,515
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)664
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$82,611,000
Wood fuel (US$)$379,143,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)$692,041,000
Total value (US$)$1,153,795,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$17
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed5,000

Sudan : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Sudan: Environment
Environment - current issuesinadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardsdust storms and periodic persistent droughts

Sudan: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 6.83%
permanent crops: 0.18%
other: 92.99% (2001)
Natural resourcespetroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower

Sudan: Economy
Economy - overview:Sudan has turned around a struggling economy with sound economic policies and infrastructure investments, but it still faces formidable economic problems, starting from its low level of per capita output. From 1997 to date, Sudan has been implementing IMF macroeconomic reforms. In 1999, Sudan began exporting crude oil and in the last quarter of 1999 recorded its first trade surplus, which, along with monetary policy, has stabilized the exchange rate. Increased oil production, revived light industry, and expanded export processing zones helped sustain GDP growth at 8.6% in 2004. Agriculture production remains Sudan's most important sector, employing 80% of the work force, contributing 39% of GDP, and accounting for most of GDP growth, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought. Chronic instability - resulting from the long-standing civil war between the Muslim north and the Christian/pagan south, adverse weather, and weak world agricultural prices - ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years.
GDP - per capita$2,100 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)8.6% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 38.7%, industry: 20.3%, services: 41% (2003 est.)
Industries oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly
Economic aid - recipient$172 million (2001)
Debt - external$18.15 billion (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)40% (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 7%, government 13% (1998 est.)

Sudan: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)40,187,486
Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.60%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)16.9
Percent rural (2003)61.1%
Median age (years)total: 18.07 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)4.85 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%

Largest Cities in Sudan

Cities and urban areas in Sudan with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
Port SudanSudan401100401100
El ObeidSudan301400301400
Wad MedaniySudan277600277600
El GeneinaSudan121900121900

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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