STATISTICS: Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago

44.1% —or about 226,000 hectares—of Trinidad and Tobago is forested. Of this, 6.2% —or roughly 14,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Trinidad and Tobago lost an average of 700 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 0.30%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change decreased by 41.1% to 0.18% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Trinidad and Tobago lost 3.8% of its forest cover, or around 9,000 hectares.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Trinidad and Tobago has some 678 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 2.2% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 2.5% are threatened. Trinidad and Tobago is home to at least 2259 species of vascular plants, of which 10.4% are endemic. 4.8% of Trinidad and Tobago is protected under IUCN categories I-V.


Trinidad and Tobago: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)513,000
Total Forest Area (ha)226,000
Percent Forest Cover44.05%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)14,000
Primary Forest, % total forest6.19%
Primary Forest, % total land2.73%
Other wooded land (ha)74,000

Trinidad and Tobago : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Trinidad and Tobago: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)14,0006.2%
Modified natural (ha | %)197,00087.2%
Semi-natural (ha | %)-0.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)15,0006.6%
Production plantation (ha | %)-0.0%

Trinidad and Tobago: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)235,000
Forest 2000 (ha)228,000
Forest 2005 (ha)226,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(700)-0.30%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(400)-0.18%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(9,000)-3.83%
Change in rate (%)-41.10%
Primary 1990 (ha)14,000
Primary 2000 (ha)14,000
Primary 2005 (ha)14,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Other 1990 (ha)65,000
Other 2000 (ha)72,000
Other 2005 (ha)74,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)7001.08%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)4000.56%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)9,00013.85%
Change in rate (%)-48.41%
Other 1990 (ha)15,000
Other 2000 (ha)15,000
Other 2005 (ha)15,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)285,000
Other 2000 (ha)285,000
Other 2005 (ha)285,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!

Trinidad and Tobago: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)14,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)14,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)2.73%

Trinidad and Tobago: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)75.4%
Private (%)24.6%
Other (%)-
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)-
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)19.5%
Protection (%)13.3%
Conservation (%)6.2%
Social Services (%)1.3%
Multiple Services (%)0.0%
None of Unknown (%)59.7%

Trinidad and Tobago: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)1.75%
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Trinidad and Tobago: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20051
World Heritage sites, 20040
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land4.8%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land2.50%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20042.24%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Trinidad and Tobago: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species34
endemic species5
threatened species9
total species435
endemic species3
threatened species2
total species116
endemic species1
threatened species1
total species93
endemic species6
threatened species5
Wildlife diversity
total species678
endemic species15
threatened species17

Trinidad and Tobago: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species267
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered-
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic236
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened1

Trinidad and Tobago: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)38
Below-ground biomass (M t)9
Dead wood (M t)4
Total (M t)51
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)19
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)5
Carbon in dead wood (M t)2
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)75
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)-
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)75
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)n.s.
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)60
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)120
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$6,872,000
Wood fuel (US$)-
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)$6,872,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$30
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed1,000

Trinidad and Tobago : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Trinidad and Tobago: Environment
Environment - current issueswater pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardsoutside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms

Trinidad and Tobago: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 14.62%
permanent crops: 9.16%
other: 76.22% (2001)
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, asphalt

Trinidad and Tobago: Economy
Economy - overview:Trinidad and Tobago, the leading Caribbean producer of oil and gas, has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international businesses. Tourism is a growing sector, although not proportionately as important as in many other Caribbean islands. The economy benefits from low inflation and a growing trade surplus. Prospects for growth in 2006 are good as prices for oil, petrochemicals, and liquified natural gas are expected to remain high, and foreign direct investment continues to grow to support expanded capacity in the energy sector. The government is coping with a rise in violent crime.
GDP - per capita$12,700 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)6.5% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productscocoa, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 0.7%, industry: 57%, services: 42.3% (2005 est.)
Industries petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles
Economic aid - recipient$24 million (1999 est.)
Debt - external$2.986 billion (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)21% (1992 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 9.5%, manufacturing, mining, and quarrying 14%, construction and utilities 12.4%, services 64.1% (1997 est.)

Trinidad and Tobago: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)1,088,644
Population growth rate (%) (2005)-0.74%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)212.3
Percent rural (2003)24.6%
Median age (years)total: 30.91 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.75 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Indian (South Asian) 40%, African 37.5%, mixed 20.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.8% (2000 census)

[an error occurred while processing this directive] Trinidad and Tobago: Infrastructure
Telephones - main lines in use325,100 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular361,900 (2002)
Roadways (km)total: 8,320 km
paved: 4,252 km
unpaved: 4,068 km (1999 est.)

Trinidad and Tobago: Health
Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 66.73 years
male: 65.6 years
female: 67.91 years (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate24.31 deaths/1,000 live births
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)3.2% (2003 est.)

Trinidad and Tobago : References & Data Sources

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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