STATISTICS: Nigeria


Nigeria

12.2% —or about 11,089,000 hectares—of Nigeria is forested. Of this, 2.9% —or roughly 326,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Nigeria lost an average of 409,700 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 2.38%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 31.2% to 3.12% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Nigeria lost 35.7% of its forest cover, or around 6,145,000 hectares. Nigeria lost -1,230,000 hectares—1—of its primary forest cover during that time. Deforestation rates of primary cover have decreased 79.1% since the close of the 1990s. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Nigeria lost 39.2% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Nigeria has some 1417 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 1.2% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 3.5% are threatened. Nigeria is home to at least 4715 species of vascular plants, of which 4.3% are endemic. 3.6% of Nigeria is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Nigeria Environmental profile






Books

Nigeria: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)91,077,000
Total Forest Area (ha)11,089,000
Percent Forest Cover12.18%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)326,000
Primary Forest, % total forest2.94%
Primary Forest, % total land0.36%
Other wooded land (ha)5,495,000


Nigeria : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%


Nigeria: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)326,0002.9%
Modified natural (ha | %)10,414,00093.9%
Semi-natural (ha | %)-0.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)349,0003.1%
Production plantation (ha | %)-0.0%


Nigeria: Change in Forest Cover
TOTAL FOREST COVER
Forest 1990 (ha)17,234,000
Forest 2000 (ha)13,137,000
Forest 2005 (ha)11,089,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(409,700)-2.38%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(409,600)-3.12%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(6,145,000)-35.66%
Change in rate (%)31.15%
PRIMARY FOREST COVER
Primary 1990 (ha)1,556,000
Primary 2000 (ha)736,000
Primary 2005 (ha)326,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(82,000)-5.27%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(82,000)-11.14%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(1,230,000)-79.05%
Change in rate (%)111.41%
OTHER WOODED LAND
Other 1990 (ha)9,717,000
Other 2000 (ha)6,902,000
Other 2005 (ha)5,495,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(281,500)-2.90%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(281,400)-4.08%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(4,222,000)-43.45%
Change in rate (%)40.74%
PLANTATIONS
Other 1990 (ha)251,000
Other 2000 (ha)316,000
Other 2005 (ha)349,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)6,5002.59%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)6,6002.09%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)98,00039.04%
Change in rate (%)-19.35%
TOTAL DEGRADATION/CONSERVSION
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)26,700,000
Other 2000 (ha)19,723,000
Other 2005 (ha)16,235,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(697,700)-2.61%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(697,600)-3.54%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(10,465,000)-39.19%
Change in rate (%)35.36%


Nigeria: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)326,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)326,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.36%


Nigeria: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)27.6%
Protection (%)0.0%
Conservation (%)49.6%
Social Services (%)0.0%
Multiple Services (%)0.0%
None of Unknown (%)22.7%


Nigeria: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)-
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-


Nigeria: Protected areas
1
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20051
World Heritage sites, 20041
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land3.6%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land2.72%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20040.81%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%


Nigeria: Biodiversity - Wildlife
Amphibians
total species73
endemic species2
threatened species13
Birds
total species899
endemic species4
threatened species9
Mammals
total species290
endemic species4
threatened species25
Reptiles
total species155
endemic species7
threatened species2
Wildlife diversity
total species1417
endemic species17
threatened species49


Nigeria: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
-
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
-
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species560
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered16
Endangered18
Vulnerable138
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Total4715
Number endemic205
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened170


Nigeria: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)2,261
Below-ground biomass (M t)543
Dead wood (M t)392
Total (M t)3,195
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)1,130
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)271
Carbon in dead wood (M t)196
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
1990-2000-45,000
2000-2005-45,000
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
1990-20000.3
2000-20050.47
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)13,916
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)72,711
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)86,627
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)6
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$1,527,288,000
Wood fuel (US$)$475,429,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)$2,002,718,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$181
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed11,000


Nigeria : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production60,064
Imports-
Exports1
Consumption60,063
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production9,418
Imports1
Exports4
Consumption9,415
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production2,000
Imports1
Exports0
Consumption2,001
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production95
Imports74
Exports0
Consumption169
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Production23
Imports17
Exports-
Consumption40
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Production19
Imports182
Exports2
Consumption199
Nigeria: Environment
Environment - current issuessoil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts; flooding


Nigeria: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 31.29%
permanent crops: 2.96%
other: 65.75% (2001)
Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land


Nigeria: Economy
Economy - overview:Oil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, is undertaking some reforms under a new reform-minded administration. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth - Nigeria is Africa's most populous country - and the country, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. In the last year the government has begun showing the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as to modernize the banking system, to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. In 2003 the government began deregulating fuel prices, announced the privatization of the country's four oil refineries, and instituted the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy, a domestically designed and run program modeled on the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility for fiscal and monetary management. GDP rose strongly in 2005, based largely on increased oil exports and high global crude prices. In November 2005, Abuja won Paris Club approval for an historic debt relief deal that by March 2006 should eliminate $30 billion worth of Nigeria's total $36 billion external debt. The deal first requires that Nigeria repay roughly $12 billion in arrears to its bilateral creditors. Nigeria would then be allowed to buyback its remaining debt stock at a discount. The deal commits Nigeria more intensified IMF reviews.
GDP - per capita$1,000 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)5.2% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productscocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 26.8%, industry: 48.8%, services: 24.4% (2005 est.)
Industries crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair
Economic aid - recipientIMF $250 million (1998)
Debt - external$37.49 billion (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)60% (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 70%, industry 10%, services 20% (1999 est.)


Nigeria: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)128,771,988
Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.37%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)141.4
Percent rural (2003)53.3%
Median age (years)total: 18.63 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)5.53 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%


Largest Cities in Nigeria

Cities and urban areas in Nigeria with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
LagosNigeria80292009123200
KanoNigeria32487003519500
IbadanNigeria30784003670400
KadunaNigeria14589001458900
Port HarcourtNigeria10539001190600
BeninNigeria10516001051600
MaiduguriNigeria971700971700
ZariaNigeria898900898900
AbaNigeria784500899100
IlorinNigeria756400756400
JosNigeria742100742100
OgbomoshoNigeria726300985600
OyoNigeria620400620400
EnuguNigeria593300662800
AbeokutaNigeria529700698100
OnitshaNigeria5095001001000
WarriNigeria500900500900
SokotoNigeria500500500500
OkeneNigeria444900444900
CalabarNigeria431200431200
OshogboNigeria4210001309900
KatsinaNigeria387000387000
AkureNigeria369700369700
IfeNigeria313400313400
BauchiNigeria291600291600
IseyinNigeria286700286700
MinnaNigeria270600270600
MakurdiNigeria249000249000
OwoNigeria243000243000
AdoNigeria241200523300
IleshaNigeria233900561200
GombeNigeria230900230900
UmuahiaNigeria230800230800
OndoNigeria225800225800
DamaturuNigeria223000223000
JimetaNigeria218400218400
Ikot EkpeneNigeria209400209400
GusauNigeria201200201200
MubiNigeria198700198700
ShagamuNigeria191500191500
OwerriNigeria187600187600
UgepNigeria187000187000
Ijebu OdeNigeria186700186700
IseNigeria167100167100
GbokoNigeria166400166400
IlaweNigeria160700160700
IkareNigeria160600160600
AbujaNigeria159900565100
BidaNigeria159100159100
OkpokoNigeria152900152900
AwkaNigeria152300152300
SapeleNigeria151000151000
IlaNigeria150700150700
ShakiNigeria150300150300
IjeroNigeria147300147300
OtukpoNigeria136800136800
KishiNigeria130800130800
BugamaNigeria124200124200
FuntuaNigeria122500122500
AbakalikiNigeria121700121700
GbonganNigeria117300117300
LafiaNigeria115500115500
IgbohoNigeria115000115000
AmaigboNigeria111000111000
GashuaNigeria109600109600
OffaNigeria105700105700
JalingoNigeria103600103600
BamaNigeria102800102800
UyoNigeria102400102400
UromiNigeria101400101400
NsukkaNigeria100700100700
OkigweNigeria100700100700
ModakekeNigeria100500100500




 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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