39.9% —or about 35,257,000 hectares—of United Republic of Tanzania is forested.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, United Republic of Tanzania lost an average of 412,300 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 0.99%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 11.0% to 1.10% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, United Republic of Tanzania lost 14.9% of its forest cover, or around 6,184,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, United Republic of Tanzania lost 37.4% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Tanzania has some 1898 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 9.0% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 6.1% are threatened. Tanzania is home to at least 10008 species of vascular plants, of which 11.2% are endemic. 14.6% of Tanzania is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Tanzania Environmental profile


Tanzania: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)88,359,000
Total Forest Area (ha)35,257,000
Percent Forest Cover39.90%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest-
Primary Forest, % total land-
Other wooded land (ha)4,756,000

Tanzania : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Tanzania: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)--
Modified natural (ha | %)35,107,00099.6%
Semi-natural (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)150,0000.4%
Production plantation (ha | %)--

Tanzania: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)41,441,000
Forest 2000 (ha)37,318,000
Forest 2005 (ha)35,257,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(412,300)-0.99%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(412,200)-1.10%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(6,184,000)-14.92%
Change in rate (%)11.02%
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)-
Primary 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)22,374,000
Other 2000 (ha)10,629,000
Other 2005 (ha)4,756,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(1,174,500)-5.25%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(1,174,600)-11.05%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(17,618,000)-78.74%
Change in rate (%)110.52%
Other 1990 (ha)150,000
Other 2000 (ha)150,000
Other 2005 (ha)150,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)63,665,000
Other 2000 (ha)47,797,000
Other 2005 (ha)39,863,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(1,586,800)-2.49%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(1,586,800)-3.32%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(23,802,000)-37.39%
Change in rate (%)33.20%

Tanzania: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.00%

Tanzania: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)99.8%
Private (%)0.2%
Other (%)-
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)-
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)71.0%
Protection (%)-
Conservation (%)6.0%
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)22.9%
None of Unknown (%)-

Tanzania: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.02%
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Tanzania: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20054
World Heritage sites, 20046
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land14.6%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land4.34%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 200410.25%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Tanzania: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species132
endemic species51
threatened species40
total species1056
endemic species29
threatened species37
total species375
endemic species16
threatened species34
total species335
endemic species74
threatened species5
Wildlife diversity
total species1898
endemic species170
threatened species116

Tanzania: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species-
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered8
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic1122
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened239

Tanzania: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)3,636
Below-ground biomass (M t)873
Dead wood (M t)631
Total (M t)5,140
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)1,818
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)436
Carbon in dead wood (M t)316
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)2,833
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)25,200
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)28,033
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)2
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)-
Wood fuel (US$)-
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)-
Total value ($USD/ha)$-
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed4,000

Tanzania : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Tanzania: Environment
Environment - current issuessoil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardsflooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought

Tanzania: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 4.52%
permanent crops: 1.08%
other: 94.4% (2001)
Natural resourceshydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

Tanzania: Economy
Economy - overview:Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy depends heavily on agriculture, which accounts for almost half of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops to only 4% of the land area. Industry traditionally featured the processing of agricultural products and light consumer goods. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's out-of-date economic infrastructure and to alleviate poverty. Long-term growth through 2005 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth and investment. Continued donor assistance and solid macroeconomic policies supported real GDP growth of more than 6% in 2005.
GDP - per capita$700 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)6.1% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 43.2%, industry: 17.2%, services: 39.6% (2004 est.)
Industries agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond, gold and iron mining, soda ash, oil refining, shoes, cement, apparel, wood products, fertilizer, salt
Economic aid - recipient$1.2 billion (2001)
Debt - external$7.95 billion (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)36% (2002 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 80%, industry and services 20% (2002 est.)

Tanzania: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)36,766,356
Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.83%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)41.5
Median age (years)total: 17.62 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)5.06 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)mainland - native African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, native African, mixed Arab and native African

Largest Cities in Tanzania

Cities and urban areas in Tanzania with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
Dar es SalaamTanzania24561002456100

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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