TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Ecuador Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 35.6% or about 9,865,000 ha of Ecuador was forested in 2010, according to FAO. Of this 48.7% ( 4,805,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Ecuador had 167,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Ecuador lost an average of 197,600 ha or 1.43% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Ecuador lost 28.6% of its forest cover, or around 3,952,000 ha.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Ecuador has some 2703 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 14.2% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 10.2% are threatened. Ecuador is home to at least 19362 species of vascular plants, of which 20.7% are endemic. 9.3% of Ecuador is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)171413
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)1,8261,5941,562
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)495428418
Total forest carbon (Mt C)2,3212,0221,981
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)134149152
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Ecuador Environmental profile | Ecuador pictures

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Ecuador

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Ecuador: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)27684
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)9865
Percent Forest Cover36
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)4805
Primary Forest, % total forest49
Other wooded land (1000 ha)1519
Percent other wooded land5




Ecuador: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)480549
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)489350
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)1672


Ecuador: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
1381711841108539865
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-198-198-198
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.53-1.73-1.89


Ecuador: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
1381711680106889698
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-214-214-198
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.5-1.55-1.7


Ecuador: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
-468247434805
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1212
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.260.26


Ecuador: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
-161165167
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1n.s.
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.490.24


Ecuador: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
2244902104


Ecuador: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
15283


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
-----
Ecuador: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
-----
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Ecuador: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
----
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
-
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
---
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
---


Ecuador: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
--


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
n.s.---n.s.n.s.


Ecuador: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
367322001306-
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
357758445027-


Ecuador: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
9033---


Ecuador: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-2323
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-2323
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-n.s.n.s.


Ecuador: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2002)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2002) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1981) Sub-national forest law: No

Ecuador: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
----38926


Ecuador: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-136-240-376-


Ecuador: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Ecuador: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardsfrequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts


    Ecuador: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 5.85%
    permanent crops: 4.93%
    other: 89.22% (2001)
    Natural resourcespetroleum, fish, timber, hydropower


    Ecuador: Economy
    Economy - overview:Ecuador has substantial petroleum resources, which have accounted for 40% of the country's export earnings and one-fourth of central government budget revenues in recent years. Consequently, fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. In the late 1990s, Ecuador suffered its worst economic crisis, with natural disasters and sharp declines in world petroleum prices driving Ecuador's economy into free fall in 1999. Real GDP contracted by more than 6%, with poverty worsening significantly. The banking system also collapsed, and Ecuador defaulted on its external debt later that year. The currency depreciated by some 70% in 1999, and, on the brink of hyperinflation, the MAHAUD government announced it would dollarize the economy. A coup, however, ousted MAHAUD from office in January 2000, and after a short-lived junta failed to garner military support, Vice President Gustavo NOBOA took over the presidency. In March 2000, Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided the framework for the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and growth returned to its pre-crisis levels in the years that followed. Under the administration of Lucio GUTIERREZ - January 2003 to April 2005 - Ecuador benefited from higher world petroleum prices, and the new government under Alfredo PALACIO has proposed economic reforms to reduce Ecuador's vulnerability to petroleum price swings and financial crises. High oil prices have kept the current account in surplus. PALACIO is committed to spending a part of the oil windfall on social projects.
    GDP - per capita$3,900 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)3% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productsbananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 7.4%, industry: 31.8%, services: 60.8% (2005 est.)
    Industries petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals
    Economic aid - recipient$216 million (2002)
    Debt - external$17.01 billion (31 December 2004 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)45% (2001 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 8%, industry 24%, services 68% (2001)


    Ecuador: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)13,363,593
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.24%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)48.3
    Percent rural (2003)38.2%
    Median age (years)total: 23.27 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)2.72 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%


    Largest Cities in Ecuador

    Cities and urban areas in Ecuador with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    GuayaquilEcuador21968002686000
    QuitoEcuador16481001777900
    CuencaEcuador277000277000
    MachalaEcuador216000216000
    Santo DomingoEcuador194100194100
    PortoviejoEcuador184000184000
    AmbatoEcuador173900173900
    MantaEcuador172200172200
    MilagroEcuador133700133700
    EsmeraldasEcuador132800132800
    QuevedoEcuador129600129600
    RiobambaEcuador127500127500
    LojaEcuador126300126300
    IbarraEcuador124600124600


    Ecuador: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use1.549 million (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular2,394,400 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 43,197 km
    paved: 7,287 km
    unpaved: 35,910 km (2003)


    Ecuador: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 76.21 years
    male: 73.35 years
    female: 79.22 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate23.66 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.3% (2003 est.)

    Ecuador : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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