TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Malawi Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 34.4% or about 3,237,000 ha of Malawi is forested, according to FAO. Of this 28.9% ( 934,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Malawi had 365,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Malawi lost an average of 32,950 ha or 0.85% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Malawi lost 16.9% of its forest cover, or around 659,000 ha.

Malawi's forests contain 144 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Malawi has some 1029 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 1.7% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 2.4% are threatened. Malawi is home to at least 3765 species of vascular plants, of which 1.3% are endemic. 8.9% of Malawi is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)321
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)955137
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)301612
Total forest carbon (Mt C)1246749
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)374041
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Malawi Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Malawi

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Malawi: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)9408
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)3237
Percent Forest Cover34
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)934
Primary Forest, % total forest29
Other wooded land (1000 ha)0
Percent other wooded land0




Malawi: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)93429
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)193860
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)36511


Malawi: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
3896356734023237
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-33-33-33
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.88-0.94-0.99


Malawi: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
3764337031172872
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-39-39-50
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.0-1.05-1.48


Malawi: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
172713301132934
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-40-40-40
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-2.58-3.17-3.77


Malawi: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
132197285365
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
71816
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
4.097.675.07


Malawi: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
3702300040


Malawi: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
---


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
-----
Malawi: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
354109---
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Malawi: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
173159151144
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
44
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-1-2-1
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Malawi: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
--


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Malawi: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
476595598100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
587357025919100


Malawi: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
417---


Malawi: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
111
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Malawi: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (1996)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2001) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1997) Sub-national forest law: No

Malawi: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
330828559116665115


Malawi: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
1388456-1351-1807-


Malawi: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Malawi: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    Natural hazardsNA


    Malawi: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 23.38%
    permanent crops: 1.49%
    other: 75.13% (2001)
    Natural resourceslimestone, arable land, hydropower, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite


    Malawi: Economy
    Economy - overview:Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries. The economy is predominately agricultural, with about 90% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounted for nearly 36% of GDP and 80% of export revenues in 2005. The performance of the tobacco sector is key to short-term growth as tobacco accounts for over 50% of exports. The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. In late 2000, Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. The government faces strong challenges, including developing a market economy, improving educational facilities, facing up to environmental problems, dealing with the rapidly growing problem of HIV/AIDS, and satisfying foreign donors that fiscal discipline is being tightened. In 2005, President MUTHARIKA championed an anticorruption campaign. Malawi's recent fiscal policy performance has been very strong, but a serious drought in 2005 and 2006 will heighten pressure on the government to increase spending.
    GDP - per capita$600 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)1% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productstobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn, potatoes, cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses; groundnuts, Macadamia nuts; cattle, goats
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 35.9%, industry: 14.5%, services: 49.6% (2005 est.)
    Industries tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods
    Economic aid - recipient$401.5 million (2001)
    Debt - external$3.284 billion (2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)55% (2004 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 90% (2003 est.)


    Malawi: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)12,158,924
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.06%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)129.2
    Percent rural (2003)83.7%
    Median age (years)total: 16.34 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)5.98 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuka, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European


    Largest Cities in Malawi

    Cities and urban areas in Malawi with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    BlantyreMalawi533000533000
    LilongweMalawi486000486000


    Malawi: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use85,000 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular135,100 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 28,400 km
    paved: 5,254 km
    unpaved: 23,146 km (1999)


    Malawi: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 41.43 years
    male: 41.66 years
    female: 41.2 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate103.32 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)14.2% (2003 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague are high risks in some locations
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2004)

    Malawi : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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