TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Nicaragua Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 25.7% or about 3,114,000 ha of Nicaragua is forested, according to FAO. Of this 37.9% ( 1,179,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Nicaragua had 74,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Nicaragua lost an average of 70,000 ha or 1.55% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Nicaragua lost 31.0% of its forest cover, or around 1,400,000 ha.

Nicaragua's forests contain 349 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Nicaragua has some 1052 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 1.8% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 3.0% are threatened. Nicaragua is home to at least 7590 species of vascular plants, of which 0.5% are endemic. 6.0% of Nicaragua is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)855
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)674479444
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)188133122
Total forest carbon (Mt C)862612566
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)102113119
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Nicaragua Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Nicaragua

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Nicaragua: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)12140
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)3114
Percent Forest Cover26
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)1179
Primary Forest, % total forest38
Other wooded land (1000 ha)2219
Percent other wooded land18




Nicaragua: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)117938
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)186160
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)742


Nicaragua: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
4514381434643114
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-70-70-70
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.67-1.91-2.11


Nicaragua: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
4514381433903040
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-70-70-77
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.6-2-2


Nicaragua: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
--13151179
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
---27
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
---2.16


Nicaragua: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
--7474
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
--0
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
--0


Nicaragua: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
206650217


Nicaragua: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
11882


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
41256


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
-----
Nicaragua: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
4611481444717
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Nicaragua: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
506428389349
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
112
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-8-8-8
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Nicaragua: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
63100


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Nicaragua: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
-112216100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
-1133-


Nicaragua: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
17n.s.---


Nicaragua: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
153035
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Nicaragua: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2008)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2008) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (2003) Sub-national forest law: Yes

Nicaragua: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
----33238


Nicaragua: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
14421801-1622-3423-


Nicaragua: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Nicaragua: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
    Natural hazardsdestructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides; extremely susceptible to hurricanes


    Nicaragua: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 15.94%
    permanent crops: 1.94%
    other: 82.12% (2001)
    Natural resourcesgold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish


    Nicaragua: Economy
    Economy - overview:Nicaragua, one of the hemisphere's poorest countries, faces low per capita income, widespread underemployment, and a heavy external debt burden. Distribution of income is one of the most unequal on the globe. While the country has progressed toward macroeconomic stability in the past few years, GDP annual growth has been far too low to meet the country's needs, forcing the country to rely on international economic assistance to meet fiscal and debt financing obligations. Nicaragua qualified in early 2004 for some $4 billion in foreign debt reduction under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative because of its earlier successful performance under its International Monetary Fund policy program and other efforts. In October 2005 Nicaragua ratified the US-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), which will provide an opportunity for Nicaragua to attract investment, create jobs, and deepen economic development. High oil prices helped drive inflation to 10% in 2005, leading to a fall in real GDP growth to 3.5% from over 5% in 2004.
    GDP - per capita$2,800 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)3.5% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productscoffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, corn, tobacco, sesame, soya, beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 16.8%, industry: 27.6%, services: 55.6% (2005 est.)
    Industries food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood
    Economic aid - recipient$541.8 million (2003)
    Debt - external$4.054 billion (2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)50% (2001 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 30.5%, industry 17.3%, services 52.2% (2003 est.)


    Nicaragua: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)5,465,100
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.92%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)45.4
    Percent rural (2003)42.7%
    Median age (years)total: 20.56 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)2.81 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian 5%


    Largest Cities in Nicaragua

    Cities and urban areas in Nicaragua with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    ManaguaNicaragua11066001342200
    LeonNicaragua158600158600
    ChinandegaNicaragua124700124700
    MasayaNicaragua113900113900


    Nicaragua: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use171,600 (2002)
    Telephones - mobile cellular202,800 (2002)
    Roadways (km)total: 18,712 km
    paved: 2,126 km
    unpaved: 16,586 km (2002)


    Nicaragua: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 70.33 years
    male: 68.27 years
    female: 72.49 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate29.11 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.2% (2003 est.)

    Nicaragua : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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