TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Panama Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 43.7% or about 3,251,000 ha of Panama is forested, according to FAO. Panama had 79,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Panama lost an average of 27,050 ha or 0.71% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Panama lost 14.3% of its forest cover, or around 541,000 ha.

Panama's forests contain 367 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Panama has some 1569 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 5.5% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 6.1% are threatened. Panama is home to at least 9915 species of vascular plants, of which 12.3% are endemic. 6.5% of Panama is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)643
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)469327310
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)1319086
Total forest carbon (Mt C)600418396
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)105115116
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Panama Environmental profile | Panama pictures

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Panama

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Panama: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)7443
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)3251
Percent Forest Cover44
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)0
Primary Forest, % total forest0
Other wooded land (1000 ha)821
Percent other wooded land11




Panama: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)00
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)317298
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)792


Panama: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
3792336933103251
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-42-12-12
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.18-0.35-0.36


Panama: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
3779332532483172
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-45-45-15
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.2-1.2-0.46


Panama: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
0000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
---


Panama: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
13446279
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
343
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
13.317.125.03


Panama: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
1424104300


Panama: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
9820


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
10000


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
1000000
Panama: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
6642044660-
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
1316


Panama: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
429381374367
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
113
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-5-1-1
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Panama: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
3-


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Panama: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
12360157-
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
160614681385-


Panama: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
-----


Panama: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Panama: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2003)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2008) -
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1994) Sub-national forest law: No

Panama: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
----12617


Panama: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-------


Panama: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Panama: Environment
    Environment - current issueswater pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation and soil erosion threatens siltation of Panama Canal; air pollution in urban areas; mining threatens natural resources
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    Natural hazardsoccasional severe storms and forest fires in the Darien area


    Panama: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 7.36%
    permanent crops: 1.98%
    other: 90.66% (2001)
    Natural resourcescopper, mahogany forests, shrimp, hydropower


    Panama: Economy
    Economy - overview:Panama's dollarised economy rests primarily on a well-developed services sector that accounts for four-fifths of GDP. Services include operating the Panama Canal, banking, the Colon Free Zone, insurance, container ports, flagship registry, and tourism. A slump in Colon Free Zone and agricultural exports, the global slowdown, and the withdrawal of US military forces held back economic growth in 2000-03; growth picked up in 2004 and 2005 led by export-oriented services and a construction boom stimulated by tax incentives. The government has been backing tax reforms, reform of the social security program, new regional trade agreements, and development of tourism. Unemployment remains high.
    GDP - per capita$7,300 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)4.3% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productsbananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane, vegetables; livestock; shrimp
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 7.6%, industry: 17.9%, services: 74.5% (2005 est.)
    Industries construction, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling
    Economic aid - recipient$197.1 million (1995)
    Debt - external$9.859 billion (2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)37% (1999 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 20.8%, industry 18%, services 61.2% (1995 est.)


    Panama: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)3,039,150
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.26%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)40.0
    Percent rural (2003)42.9%
    Median age (years)total: 26.18 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)2.45 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 70%, Amerindian and mixed (West Indian) 14%, white 10%, Amerindian 6%


    Largest Cities in Panama

    Cities and urban areas in Panama with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    Panama CityPanama4307001035400


    Panama: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use386,900 (2002)
    Telephones - mobile cellular834,000 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 11,643 km
    paved: 4,028 km (including 30 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 7,615 km (2000 est.)


    Panama: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 75.25 years
    male: 72.68 years
    female: 77.93 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate20.47 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.9% (2003 est.)

    Panama : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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