TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Poland Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 30.5% or about 9,337,000 ha of Poland is forested, according to FAO. Of this 0.6% ( 54,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Poland had 8,889,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Poland lost an average of 22,800 ha or 0.26% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Poland gained 5.1% of its forest cover, or around 456,000 ha.

Poland's forests contain 968 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Poland has some 563 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.4% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 4.3% are threatened. Poland is home to at least 2450 species of vascular plants, of which 0.1% are endemic. 11.0% of Poland is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Poland

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Poland: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)30633
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)9337
Percent Forest Cover30
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)54
Primary Forest, % total forest1
Other wooded land (1000 ha)0
Percent other wooded land0




Poland: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)541
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)3944
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)888995


Poland: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
8881905992009337
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
182827
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.200.310.30


Poland: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
370414433448
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
443
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
1.21.190.82


Poland: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
30515454
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
210
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
5.451.150


Poland: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
8511864587678889
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
132424
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.160.280.28


Poland: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
40205111518


Poland: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
83170


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
9424


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
1000000
Poland: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
20492191599450100
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
0-


Poland: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
691807887968
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
104
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
121616
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
1.11.51.5


Poland: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
8100


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
1184961248--


Poland: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
22783295983557299
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
43383382463591


Poland: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
126466---


Poland: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
132--
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
1316048
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
1--


Poland: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (1997)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2000) In formulation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1991) Sub-national forest law: No

Poland: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
------


Poland: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
422954433618368094114433627778


Poland: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Poland: Environment
    Environment - current issuessituation has improved since 1989 due to decline in heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-Communist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious because of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes; pollution levels should continue to decrease as industrial establishments bring their facilities up to European Union code, but at substantial cost to business and the government
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
    Natural hazardsflooding


    Poland: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 45.91%
    permanent crops: 1.12%
    other: 52.97% (2001)
    Natural resourcescoal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land


    Poland: Economy
    Economy - overview:Poland has steadfastly pursued a policy of economic liberalization throughout the 1990s and today stands out as a success story among transition economies. Even so, much remains to be done, especially in bringing down the unemployment rate-currently the highest in the EU. The privatization of small and medium-sized state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new firms has encouraged the development of the private business sector, but legal and bureaucratic obstacles alongside persistent corruption are hampering its further development. Poland's agricultural sector remains handicapped by surplus labor, inefficient small farms, and lack of investment. Restructuring and privatization of "sensitive sectors" (e.g., coal, steel, railroads, and energy), while recently initiated, have stalled. Reforms in health care, education, the pension system, and state administration have resulted in larger-than-expected fiscal pressures. Further progress in public finance depends mainly on reducing losses in Polish state enterprises, restraining entitlements, and overhauling the tax code to incorporate the growing gray economy and farmers, most of whom pay no tax. The previous Socialist-led government introduced a package of social and administrative spending cuts to reduce public spending by about $17 billion through 2007, but full implementation of the plan was trumped by election-year politics in 2005. The right-wing Law and Justice party won parliamentary elections in September, and Lech KACZYNSKI won the presidential election in October, running on a state-interventionist fiscal and monetary platform. Poland joined the EU in May 2004, and surging exports to the EU contributed to Poland's strong growth in 2004, though its competitiveness could be threatened by the zloty's appreciation. GDP per capita roughly equals that of the three Baltic states. Poland stands to benefit from nearly $23.2 billion in EU funds, available through 2006. Farmers have already begun to reap the rewards of membership via booming exports, higher food prices, and EU agricultural subsidies.
    GDP - per capita$12,700 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)3.3% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productspotatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork, dairy
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 2.8%, industry: 31.7%, services: 65.5% (2005 est.)
    Industries machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
    Economic aid - recipient$13.9 billion in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2004-06)
    Debt - external$123.4 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)17% (2003 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 16.1%, industry 29%, services 54.9% (2002)


    Poland: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)38,635,144
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.03%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)126.9
    Percent rural (2003)38.1%
    Median age (years)total: 36.43 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.39 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Polish 96.7%, German 0.4%, Belarusian 0.1%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 2.7% (2002 census)


    Largest Cities in Poland

    Cities and urban areas in Poland with population over 100,000
    [For more population information including updated figures and a wider selection of cities please visit
    The World Gazetteer]

    --> All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    WarszawaPoland16098002202000
    LodzPoland7837001013300
    KrakowPoland734400783100
    WroclawPoland633400633400
    PoznanPoland580700635900
    GdanskPoland457100866800
    SzczecinPoland416000505300
    BydgoszczPoland385100385100
    LublinPoland354700354700
    KatowicePoland3364002657100
    BialystokPoland286900286900
    GdyniaPoland258700258700
    CzestochowaPoland252900252900
    SosnowiecPoland237800237800
    RadomPoland230200230200
    KielcePoland209800209800
    GliwicePoland207400207400
    TorunPoland205900205900
    Bielsko-BialaPoland177600177600
    OlsztynPoland176100176100
    RzeszowPoland163100163100
    RybnikPoland143000143000
    WalbrzychPoland133200133200
    PlockPoland130700130700
    ElblagPoland130600130600
    OpolePoland129100129100
    Gorzow WielkopolskiPoland127300127300
    WloclawekPoland123600123600
    TarnowPoland121500121500
    Zielona GoraPoland120100120100
    KoszalinPoland113300113300
    LegnicaPoland108800108800
    KaliszPoland106500106500
    GrudziadzPoland102600102600
    SlupskPoland102100102100
    Jastrzebie-ZdrojPoland100600100600


    Poland: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use12.3 million (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular17.401 million (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 364,697 km
    paved: 249,088 km (including 399 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 115,609 km (2001)


    Poland: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 74.74 years
    male: 70.71 years
    female: 79.03 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate8.51 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.1% ; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

    Poland : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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