TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Singapore Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 2.9% or about 2,000 ha of Singapore is forested, according to FAO. Singapore's forests contain - million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Singapore has some 590 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 2.7% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 2.9% are threatened. Singapore is home to at least 2282 species of vascular plants, of which 0.1% are endemic. 5.2% of Singapore is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Singapore Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Singapore

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Singapore: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)69
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)2
Percent Forest Cover3
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)2
Primary Forest, % total forest100
Other wooded land (1000 ha)0
Percent other wooded land0




Singapore: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)2100
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)00
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)00


Singapore: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
2222
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


Singapore: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
2222
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.00.000.00


Singapore: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
2222
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


Singapore: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
0000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
---


Singapore: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
001000000


Singapore: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
10000


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
1000000
Singapore: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
-----
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
0-


Singapore: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
----
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
-
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
---
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
---


Singapore: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
0-


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
000000


Singapore: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
000-
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
000-


Singapore: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
-----


Singapore: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
n.s.n.s.n.s.
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
000
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Singapore: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): No (-)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: No (-) -
National forest law (year): Incorporated in other law (2005) Sub-national forest law: No

Singapore: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
------


Singapore: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-------


Singapore: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Singapore: Environment
    Environment - current issuesindustrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardsNA


    Singapore: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 1.64%
    permanent crops: 0%
    other: 98.36% (2001)
    Natural resourcesfish, deepwater ports


    Singapore: Economy
    Economy - overview:Singapore, a highly-developed and successful free-market economy, enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP equal to that of the Big 4 West European countries. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in electronics and manufacturing. It was hard hit in 2001-03 by the global recession, by the slump in the technology sector, and by an outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003, which curbed tourism and consumer spending. The government hopes to establish a new growth path that will be less vulnerable to the external business cycle and will continue efforts to establish Singapore as Southeast Asia's financial and high-tech hub. Fiscal stimulus, low interest rates, a surge in exports, and internal flexibility led to vigorous growth in 2004, with real GDP rising by 8% by far the economy's best performance since 2000, but growth slowed to 4.5% in 2005.
    GDP - per capita$29,700 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)4.5% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productsrubber, copra, fruit, orchids, vegetables, poultry, eggs, fish, ornamental fish
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 0% negligible, industry: 33.6%, services: 66.4% (2005 est.)
    Industries electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade
    Economic aid - recipientNA
    Debt - external$24.67 billion (2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)NA
    Labor force - by occupation (%)manufacturing 18%, construction 6%, transportation and communication 11%, financial, business, and other services 49%, other 16% (2003)


    Singapore: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)4,425,720
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.56%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)6,482.7
    Percent rural (2003)0.0%
    Median age (years)total: 36.76 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.05 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Chinese 76.8%, Malay 13.9%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4% (2000 census)


    Largest Cities in Singapore

    Cities and urban areas in Singapore with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    SingaporeSingapore41545004876000


    Singapore: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use1,896,100 (2004)
    Telephones - mobile cellular3,521,800 (2004)
    Roadways (km)total: 3,130 km
    paved: 3,130 km (including 150 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 0 km (2002)


    Singapore: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 81.62 years
    male: 79.05 years
    female: 84.39 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate2.29 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.2% (2003 est.)

    Singapore : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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