TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

South America Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 49.5% or about 864,351,000 ha of South America is forested, according to FAO.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, South America lost an average of 4,105,150 ha or 0.43% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, South America lost 8.7% of its forest cover, or around 82,103,000 ha.

South America's forests contain - million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass.

South and Central America Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in South America

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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South America: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)1746292
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)864351
Percent Forest Cover49
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest-
Other wooded land (1000 ha)179653
Percent other wooded land10




South America: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)--
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)--
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)--


South America: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
946454904322882258864351
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-4213-4413-3581
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.45-0.49-0.41


South America: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
938339894264871135850530
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-4408-4408-4373
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.5-0.47-0.49


South America: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
----
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
---
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
---


South America: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
8115100581112313821
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
194213540
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
2.392.123.90


South America: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
147131411041


South America: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
---


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
-----
South America: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
-----
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


South America: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
----
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
-
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
---
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
---


South America: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
--


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


South America: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
----
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
----


South America: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
-----


South America: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


South America: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): - (-)
Sub-national forest policy: -
National forest program (year) - status: - (-) -
National forest law (year): - (-) Sub-national forest law: -

South America: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
------


South America: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-------


South America: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive]

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    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    Largest Cities in South America

    Cities and urban areas in
    South America with population over 100,000, sorted by City Population All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area PopulationUrban Area Rank [World]City Pop Rank [World]Urban Area Rank [South America]City Pop Rank [South America]
    Buenos AiresArgentina116551001292380012221
    Sao PauloBrazil10057700185051005712
    LimaPeru76035007603500341953
    BogotaColombia66805007798000312244
    Rio de JaneiroBrazil602930011246600192535
    SantiagoChile50345005636800482766
    SalvadorBrazil2539500317350010275117
    Belo HorizonteBrazil23078004413800618678
    FortalezaBrazil2230800297620011290139
    CaliColombia22038002800600119911510
    GuayaquilEcuador21968002686000126921611
    BrasiliaBrazil20895002089500173991712
    MedellinColombia193240029944001101051213
    MaracaiboVenezuela179990018680001891152014
    CaracasVenezuela1763100347810089119915
    QuitoEcuador164810017779001941272116
    CuritibaBrazil164230028350001181291417
    ManausBrazil152460015246002441392818
    La PazBolivia151780015513002351412619
    RecifeBrazil14641003439500911461020
    CordobaArgentina146020015435002381502721
    ValenciaVenezuela145720017391002011522222
    MontevideoUruguay144990017233002041532323
    Porto AlegreBrazil1355100364640079169824
    BelemBrazil134490019126001851731825
    BarranquillaColombia129840018707001881791926
    RosarioArgentina124340013583002911913227
    Santa CruzBolivia116170011617003342123328
    GoianiaBrazil113260017063002062252429
    GuarulhosBrazil109680010968003712383730
    CampinasBrazil99320013655002882733131
    MendozaArgentina9775009775004242804032
    Nova IguacuBrazil9591009591004332864233
    Sao GoncaloBrazil9210009210004592974634
    BarquisimetoVenezuela91950010393003962983835
    Sao LuisBrazil87180011338003483123436
    CartagenaColombia8539008539004903204837
    MaceioBrazil8505009633004313214138
    La PlataArgentina8331008331004943274939
    Duque de CaxiasBrazil7977007977005203455140
    TucumanArgentina7912007912005233475341
    Ciudad GuayanaVenezuela7826007826005323535542
    NatalBrazil73790010970003703793643
    ArequipaPeru7339007339005713815844
    Sao Bernardo do CampoBrazil7141007141005853956045
    TeresinaBrazil7059009496004374034446
    Campo GrandeBrazil6858006858006064166247
    Mar del PlataArgentina6790006790006104216348
    OsascoBrazil6697006697006164266449
    Santo AndreBrazil6656006656006174286550
    CucutaColombia6571007350005684345751
    Joao PessoaBrazil6149009349004484594552
    JaboataoBrazil6132006132006654616853
    TrujilloPeru6009006009006794747054
    CochabambaBolivia5689007980005195105055
    ContagemBrazil5663005663007205137356
    Sao Jose dos CamposBrazil5654007943005225145257
    AsuncionParaguay54680014326002685352958
    BucaramangaColombia5424009555004355404359
    Ribeirao PretoBrazil5266007899005245635460
    SaltaArgentina5199005199007815737461
    SorocabaBrazil5164006245006545816762
    UberlandiaBrazil5144005144007925837663
    CuiabaBrazil5025007309005746065964
    PetareVenezuela5023005023008156087765
    Santa FeArgentina5000005000008196117866
    ChiclayoPeru4904004904008376257967
    AracajuBrazil4799007410005646405668
    MaracayVenezuela47930011253003556433569
    NiteroiBrazil4673004673008566578070
    Puente AltoChile4638004638008606628171
    Sao Joao de MeritiBrazil4606004606008656668272
    Juiz de ForaBrazil4568004568008706718473
    Belford RoxoBrazil4506004506008756818574
    LondrinaBrazil4494006561006286836675
    Feira de SantanaBrazil4478004478008786878676
    JoinvilleBrazil4358004358008947078777
    San JuanArgentina4357004357008957088878
    SantosBrazil42320015567002347252579
    AnanindeuaBrazil4185004185009147378980
    ConcepciónChile4046009781004237633981
    IbagueColombia4014004014009367719082
    ResistenciaArgentina3995003995009397749183
    NeuquenArgentina3919003919009487899284
    Santiago del EsteroArgentina3881003881009527959385
    PereiraColombia3869005858006937987186
    CamposBrazil3788003788009678209487
    MauaBrazil3752003752009748299588
    DiademaBrazil3733003733009778339689
    Santa MartaColombia3722003722009798369790
    OlindaBrazil3695003695009868459891
    Vila VelhaBrazil3670003670009938529992
    Aparecida de GoianiaBrazil36550036550099985810093
    PiuraPeru359400359400101087010194
    Viña del MarChile358800358800101187110295
    Ciudad BolivarVenezuela358500358500101287210396
    BelloColombia355000355000101787810497
    PastoColombia354000354000102188210598
    CarapicuibaBrazil353900353900102288310699
    Sao Jose do Rio PretoBrazil3532003532001024887107100
    FlorianopolisBrazil35180071200058789161101
    Caxias do SulBrazil3507003507001029895108102
    IquitosPeru3493003493001032898109103
    BarcelonaVenezuela34860060690067590069104
    SerraBrazil3457003457001043915110105
    ManizalesColombia3429003429001050922111106
    Campina GrandeBrazil34200051670078792775107
    CorrientesArgentina3300003300001081963112108
    PiracicabaBrazil3300003300001082964113109
    CariacicaBrazil3258003258001089970114110
    BauruBrazil3225003225001097979115111
    TemucoChile3210003210001102985116112
    BetimBrazil3201003201001105988117113
    NeivaColombia3186003186001109995118114
    CanoasBrazil31620031620011141002119115
    Sao VicenteBrazil31490031490011171006120116
    SoledadColombia31420031420011181008121117
    Moji das CruzesBrazil31330031330011221013122118
    JundiaiBrazil31200031200011291020123119
    PelotasBrazil31020031020011351026124120
    Bahia BlancaArgentina30930030930011371029125121
    VitoriaBrazil3062001412700275104230122
    Montes ClarosBrazil30480030480011491047126123
    MaturinVenezuela30360030360011531051127124
    ValparaísoChile301700904500465105747125
    MacapaBrazil30160030160011591058128126
    TurmeroVenezuela30150030150011601059129127
    ArmeniaColombia30080030080011651064130128
    ChimbotePeru29860029860011731072131129
    TalcahuanoChile29790029790011761075132130
    AnapolisBrazil29740029740011771077133131
    PosadasArgentina29730029730011781078134132
    MaringaBrazil29480029480011841087135133
    FrancaBrazil29300029300011941098136134
    CumanaVenezuela29300029300011951099137135
    ItaquaquecetubaBrazil29230029230011971102138136
    Porto VelhoBrazil29200029200011991104139137
    VillavicencioColombia29040029040012071111140138
    San CristobalVenezuela28620028620012271132141139
    HuancayoPeru28560028560012301137142140
    Ciudad del EsteParaguay28540028540012311138143141
    SoachaColombia28410028410012331141144142
    GuarujaBrazil28290028290012351143145143
    CuscoPeru28260028260012371145146144
    ValleduparColombia27990027990012421150147145
    Ponta GrossaBrazil27720027720012521163148146
    AntofagastaChile27710027710012541165149147
    CuencaEcuador27700027700012561167150148
    PetropolisBrazil27640027640012571168151149
    PaulistaBrazil27320027320012631175152150
    MeridaVenezuela27140027140012681182153151
    Ribeirao das NevesBrazil27130027130012691183154152
    San BernardoChile27010027010012771192155153
    Foz do IguacuBrazil269100583500695119772154
    BlumenauBrazil26150026150013201240156155
    JujuyArgentina26050026050013241244157156
    ParanaArgentina25870025870013311253158157
    LimeiraBrazil25640025640013421263159158
    BarinasVenezuela25400025400013501274160159
    MonteriaColombia25390025390013511275161160
    UberabaBrazil25120025120013651289162161
    Volta RedondaBrazil249600458400867129783162
    ItaguiColombia24440024440013921319163163
    Governador ValadaresBrazil24390024390013951323164164
    CaucaiaBrazil24270024270014001329165165
    Novo HamburgoBrazil24130024130014061335166166
    SuzanoBrazil24100024100014091339167167
    Rio BrancoBrazil24050024050014111341168168
    TaubateBrazil23990023990014151347169169
    CascavelBrazil23900023900014191351170170
    Santa MariaBrazil23840023840014211353171171
    SincelejoColombia23700023700014301362172172
    PucallpaPeru23550023550014411376173173
    RancaguaChile23540023540014421377174174
    Vitoria da ConquistaBrazil23460023460014451380175175
    PalmiraColombia23310023310014531390176176
    BuenaventuraColombia23070023070014681408177177
    ViamaoBrazil23040023040014701410178178
    TacnaPeru22910022910014781420179179
    FloridablancaColombia22900022900014791422180180
    FormosaArgentina22700022700014951438181181
    Varzea GrandeBrazil22700022700014961439182182
    CaruaruBrazil22580022580015041446183183
    GeorgetownGuyana22580022580015051447184184
    ImperatrizBrazil22260022260015291473185185
    BarueriBrazil22220022220015321477186186
    GravataiBrazil22180022180015341479187187
    Boa VistaBrazil22110022110015391485188188
    IpatingaBrazil21900021900015511498189189
    ParamariboSuriname21620021620015641513190190
    MachalaEcuador21600021600015681517191191
    EmbuBrazil21350021350015811532192192
    Juazeiro do NorteBrazil21280021280015891540193193
    CabimasVenezuela21230021230015951546194194
    Praia GrandeBrazil20910020910016151569195195
    AricaChile20700020700016351591196196
    PopayanColombia20700020700016361592197197
    SumareBrazil20560020560016441601198198
    Taboao da SerraBrazil20550020550016451602199199
    MageBrazil20440020440016551612200200
    ChillánChile20370020370016591616201201
    OruroBolivia20310020310016611619202202
    SucreBolivia20270020270016651624203203
    TalcaChile20270020270016661625204204
    MossoroBrazil20220020220016701629205205
    Santa LuziaBrazil20090020090016851645206206
    IquiqueChile19980019980016941654207207
    Sao LeopoldoBrazil19960019960016961657208208
    MariliaBrazil19890019890017011662209209
    ItabunaBrazil19680019680017121674210210
    Sao Jose dos PinhaisBrazil19680019680017131675211211
    Presidente PrudenteBrazil19600019600017211683212212
    JacareiBrazil19520019520017301691213213
    Santo DomingoEcuador19410019410017461707214214
    Sao CarlosBrazil19290019290017531714215215
    SantaremBrazil19230019230017601723216216
    AlvoradaBrazil19220019220017641727217217
    Puerto la CruzVenezuela19150019150017701733218218
    AmericanaBrazil18910018910017851748219219
    Sete LagoasBrazil18830018830017921755220220
    Puerto CabelloVenezuela18760018760018001764221221
    ColomboBrazil18740018740018021766222222
    IcaPeru18660018660018071772223223
    BarrancabermejaColombia18590018590018141780224224
    SullanaPeru18490018490018211787225225
    DivinopolisBrazil18440018440018251791226226
    PortoviejoEcuador18400018400018301797227227
    Rio GrandeBrazil18390018390018321799228228
    MaracanauBrazil18180018180018471815229229
    ItaboraiBrazil18140018140018511819230230
    Sao JoseBrazil18070018070018571827231231
    AcariguaVenezuela18030018030018631833232232
    AraraquaraBrazil18000018000018671837233233
    CatamarcaArgentina17820017820018831853234234
    Los ÁngelesChile17730017730018901862235235
    PetrolinaBrazil17660017660018951867236236
    ItapeviBrazil17520017520019081880237237
    AmbatoEcuador17390017390019181889238238
    Santa Barbara d'OesteBrazil17320017320019231894239239
    MantaEcuador17220017220019341905240240
    Rio CuartoArgentina17140017140019401911241241
    Rio ClaroBrazil17090017090019491921242242
    Puerto MonttChile17040017040019531925243243
    Passo FundoBrazil17010017010019561928244244
    AracatubaBrazil16900016900019661937245245
    Barra MansaBrazil16800016800019791952246246
    Cachoeiro de ItapemirimBrazil16740016740019851958247247
    Dos QuebradasColombia16740016740019861959248248
    GuacaraVenezuela16740016740019871960249249
    HortolandiaBrazil16620016620019981972250250
    Comodoro RivadaviaArgentina16600016600020021976251251
    CamacariBrazil16400016400020211995252252
    OsornoChile16210016210020422016253253
    CoquimboChile16080016080020552030254254
    IlheusBrazil16050016050020592035255255
    TuluaColombia15970015970020662043256256
    LagesBrazil15960015960020672044257257
    ArapiracaBrazil15900015900020722049258258
    CriciumaBrazil15870015870020762053259259
    Santa TeresaVenezuela15870015870020792056260260
    CotiaBrazil15790015790020892066261261
    JuliacaPeru15710015710020942071262262
    San NicolasArgentina15590015590021062083263263
    IndaiatubaBrazil15570015570021092086264264
    Nova FriburgoBrazil15550015550021152092265265
    NilopolisBrazil15520015520021212098266266
    DouradosBrazil15510015510021222100267267
    CalamaChile15360015360021402118268268
    CoroVenezuela15100015100021772156269269
    La SerenaChile15090015090021782157270270
    San LuisArgentina15020015020021852164271271
    Ferraz de VasconcelosBrazil15020015020021862165272272
    ItajaiBrazil14870014870022002180273273
    RondonopolisBrazil14860014860022012181274274
    PalmasBrazil14840014840022052185275275
    GuarapuavaBrazil14610014610022382219276276
    La RiojaArgentina14550014550022522233277277
    Francisco MoratoBrazil14470014470022632245278278
    ChapecoBrazil14370014370022722254279279
    EnvigadoColombia14350014350022792261280280
    SobralBrazil14310014310022852267281281
    LuzianiaBrazil14290014290022892271282282
    ConcordiaArgentina14260014260022932275283283
    Sao Caetano do SulBrazil14230014230022962278284284
    Nossa Senhora do SocorroBrazil14150014150023122294285285
    ValdiviaChile14140014140023142296286286
    TarijaBolivia14110014110023222304287287
    MarabaBrazil14070014070023272309288288
    HuanucoPeru14050014050023292312289289
    GuanareVenezuela14010014010023352319290290
    Cabo de Santo AgostinhoBrazil13910013910023442328291291
    Poços de CaldasBrazil13700013700023722356292292
    IbiriteBrazil13660013660023802364293293
    CamaragibeBrazil13650013650023822366294294
    Itapecerica da SerraBrazil13640013640023872371295295
    PotosiBolivia13590013590023902374296296
    Punta ArenasChile13500013500024052390297297
    CopiapóChile13470013470024102395298298
    JuazeiroBrazil13380013380024262411299299
    MilagroEcuador13370013370024282413300300
    CartagoColombia13290013290024402425301301
    EsmeraldasEcuador13280013280024432428302302
    MacaeBrazil13220013220024502435303303
    ParnaibaBrazil13060013060024772461304304
    JequieBrazil13000013000024852469305305
    ItuBrazil12990012990024872471306306
    QuevedoEcuador12960012960024912475307307
    CastanhalBrazil12880012880024982482308308
    ParanaguaBrazil12860012860025022486309309
    QueimadosBrazil12800012800025112495310310
    ValeraVenezuela12800012800025142498311311
    El TigreVenezuela12790012790025152499312312
    RiobambaEcuador12750012750025202504313313
    Ocumare del TuyVenezuela12750012750025212505314314
    QuilpuéChile12730012730025242508315315
    Chincha AltaPeru12720012720025302514316316
    LojaEcuador12630012630025462530317317
    SapucaiaBrazil12580012580025552539318318
    BarreirasBrazil12570012570025572541319319
    Angra dos ReisBrazil12550012550025612545320320
    QuillacolloBolivia12530012530025672551321321
    PindamonhangabaBrazil12470012470025822566322322
    IbarraEcuador12460012460025872571323323
    CuricóChile12380012380025992583324324
    SabaraBrazil12320012320026062590325325
    CarupanoVenezuela12270012270026192603326326
    Mogi GuacuBrazil12170012170026422626327327
    UruguaianaBrazil12100012100026562640328328
    GirardotColombia12010012010026762660329329
    TeresopolisBrazil11960011960026852669330330
    ParnamirimBrazil11900011900026932678331331
    CalabozoVenezuela11880011880026972682332332
    Lauro de FreitasBrazil11860011860027012686333333
    San RafaelArgentina11790011790027092694334334
    ItapetiningaBrazil11760011760027172702335335
    TimonBrazil11750011750027182703336336
    MaicaoColombia11750011750027192704337337
    Braganca PaulistaBrazil11700011700027272712338338
    Patos de MinasBrazil11670011670027312716339339
    AlagoinhasBrazil11620011620027392724340340
    FlorenciaColombia11540011540027602744341341
    San Carlos de BarilocheArgentina11480011480027752759342342
    Punto FijoVenezuela11460011460027842768343343
    BugaColombia11430011430027902774344344
    SogamosoColombia11390011390027992783345345
    Rio VerdeBrazil11360011360028052789346346
    CachoeirinhaBrazil11270011270028242808347347
    CubataoBrazil11250011250028312815348348
    CuaVenezuela11230011230028402824349349
    JauBrazil11200011200028462830350350
    San FernandoVenezuela11160011160028642848351351
    TrelewArgentina11120011120028722856352352
    AyacuchoPeru11110011110028772861353353
    BarbacenaBrazil11030011030028912876354354
    AraguainaBrazil11000011000028982883355355
    TarapotoPeru11000011000029002885356356
    TunjaColombia10950010950029142900357357
    CaxiasBrazil10930010930029182904358358
    Cabo FrioBrazil10920010920029212907359359
    VarginhaBrazil10860010860029352920360360
    TandilArgentina10850010850029382923361361
    BotucatuBrazil10830010830029442929362362
    Ribeirao PiresBrazil10820010820029462931363363
    PinhaisBrazil10810010810029512936364364
    CatanduvaBrazil10750010750029642949365365
    GaranhunsBrazil10680010680029812966366366
    MercedesArgentina10660010660029862971367367
    Santa RitaBrazil10630010630029942979368368
    Jaragua do SulBrazil10590010590030112996369369
    PalhocaBrazil10580010580030163001370370
    Teixeira de FreitasBrazil10550010550030233009371371
    CaroraVenezuela10540010540030273013372372
    Conselheiro LafaieteBrazil10420010420030463032373373
    Franco da RochaBrazil10420010420030473033374374
    Pouso AlegreBrazil10380010380030583044375375
    ApucaranaBrazil10360010360030653051376376
    Teofilo OtoniBrazil10360010360030663052377377
    Vitoria de Santo AntaoBrazil10330010330030743060378378
    MelipillaChile10330010330030763062379379
    TalaraPeru10320010320030833069380380
    ResendeBrazil10310010310030843070381381
    CajamarcaPeru10230010230031083094382382
    OvalleChile10110010110031293115383383


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    South America : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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    "Rainforest" is used interchangeably with "rain forest" on this site.
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