TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Swaziland Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 32.7% or about 563,000 ha of Swaziland is forested, according to FAO. Swaziland had 140,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Swaziland lost an average of 4,550 ha or 0.96% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Swaziland gained 19.3% of its forest cover, or around 91,000 ha.

Swaziland's forests contain 22 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Swaziland has some 766 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.7% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 1.6% are threatened. Swaziland is home to at least 2715 species of vascular plants, of which 0.1% are endemic. 0.0% of Swaziland is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)10.490.38
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)22129
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)743
Total forest carbon (Mt C)291612
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)323232
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Swaziland

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Swaziland: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)1720
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)563
Percent Forest Cover33
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)0
Primary Forest, % total forest0
Other wooded land (1000 ha)427
Percent other wooded land25




Swaziland: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)00
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)42375
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)14025


Swaziland: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
472518541563
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
554
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.930.870.80


Swaziland: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
312.00368.00396.00423.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
66.006.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
1.81.791.49


Swaziland: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
0000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
---


Swaziland: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
160150145140
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1-1-1
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.64-0.68-0.70


Swaziland: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
250000075


Swaziland: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
7822n.s.


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
1000000
Swaziland: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
1934--56
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
512


Swaziland: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
23222222
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
39
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Swaziland: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
--


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Swaziland: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
1170379379100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
644644848100


Swaziland: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
-----


Swaziland: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Swaziland: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2002)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2002) Temporarily suspended
National forest law (year): Incorporated in other law (2002) Sub-national forest law: No

Swaziland: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
201013151414


Swaziland: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-388027506630


Swaziland: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Swaziland: Environment
    Environment - current issueslimited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    Natural hazardsdrought


    Swaziland: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 10.35%
    permanent crops: 0.7%
    other: 88.95% (2001)
    Natural resourcesasbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc


    Swaziland: Economy
    Economy - overview:In this small, landlocked economy, subsistence agriculture occupies more than 80% of the population. The manufacturing sector has diversified since the mid-1980s. Sugar and wood pulp remain important foreign exchange earners. Mining has declined in importance in recent years with only coal and quarry stone mines remaining active. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa from which it receives about nine-tenths of its imports and to which it sends nearly three-quarters of its exports. Customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union and worker remittances from South Africa substantially supplement domestically earned income. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for foreign investment. Overgrazing, soil depletion, drought, and sometimes floods persist as problems for the future. More than one-fourth of the population needed emergency food aid in 2004-05 because of drought, and more than one-third of the adult population was infected by HIV/AIDS.
    GDP - per capita$5,300 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)1.8% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productssugarcane, cotton, corn, tobacco, rice, citrus, pineapples, sorghum, peanuts; cattle, goats, sheep
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 15.1%, industry: 49.7%, services: 35.3% (2005 est.)
    Industries mining (coal, raw asbestos), wood pulp, sugar, soft drink concentrates, textile and apparel
    Economic aid - recipient$104 million (2001)
    Debt - external$357 million (2003 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)66% (2004)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)NA


    Swaziland: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)1,173,900
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.25%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)68.2
    Percent rural (2003)76.5%
    Median age (years)total: 18.72 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)3.7 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)African 97%, European 3%


    [an error occurred while processing this directive]--> Swaziland: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use46,200 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular88,000 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 3,107 km
    paved: NA
    unpaved: NA (2000)


    Swaziland: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 33.22 years
    male: 32.49 years
    female: 33.98 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate69.27 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)38.8% (2003 est.)

    Swaziland : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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