Mongabay.com is considered a leading source of information on tropical forests by some of the world's top ecologists and conservationists. TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: References

REFERENCES and NOTES

The opening quotation is from D.W. Orr's Earth in Mind: On Education, Environment, and the Human Prospect, Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1994.
[Buy from Amazon]

Chapter 1:


The opening quotation comes from David Quammen's Wild Thoughts from Wild Places (New York: Scribner, 1998).

The scarcity of wild places today is the theme of David Quammen's Wild Thoughts from Wild Places (New York: Scribner, 1998).
[Buy from Amazon]
Worldwide rainforest fragmentation is documented by M. McKloskey in "Note on the Fragmentation of Primary Rainforest," Ambio 22 (4), June: 250-51 1993 using analysis of satellite images.

Deforestation rates and tropical forest cover are taken from the latest State of the World's Forests 1999 (SOFO) published by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

Australia's rainforest coverage during the most recent ice ages is discussed in M. Hopkins and P. Reddell (Australia's CSIRO 1998) and van Osterzee (Where Worlds Collide, New York: Cornell University Press. 1997 [Purchase]). T.F. Flannery (The Future Eaters, New York: Braziller 1995 [Purchase]) also discusses vegetation shifts wrought by climate change and human influences.

Van Osterzee (Where Worlds Collide, New York: Cornell University Press, 1997 [Buy from Amazon]), Quammen (The Song of the Dodo, New York: Scribner 1996. [Buy from Amazon]), and Browne (The Secular Ark: Studies in the History of Biogeography, New Haven: Yale University Press 1983 [Buy from Amazon]) provide an easily understandable review of the Wallace line biogeography including the current distribution of flora and fauna in the region and the impact of changing sea levels. Rubeli (Tropical Rainforest in South-East Asia
, Kuala Lumpur: Tropical Press Sdn. Bhd., 1986.) discusses the link between flora of New Zealand, the Himalayas, and Borneo.

The history of the Amazon River Basin is covered engagingly in Goulding (Amazon-The Flooded Forest, New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. 1990 [Buy from Amazon]).

The mechanism responsible for the worldwide decline in amphibian populations is debated by Lips ("Decline of a montane amphibian fauna," Conservation Biology Vol. 12 No. 1 (106-117), Feb. 1998.), Sessions et. al. (Sessions, S.K. Franssen, R.A., Horner, V.L., "Morphological Clues from Multilegged Frogs: Are Retinoids to Blame?" Science 284 (5415) 1999), Tangley ("The Silence of the Frogs," U.S. World and News Report 8/3/98), and Tuxill ("The Latest News on the Missing Frogs," World Watch May/June 1998). For alternative commentary from an unlikely source see M. Fumento ("With Frog Scare Debunked, It Isn't Easy Being Green," The Wall Street Journal 5/12/99).

The "Primary Cover versus Total Forest Cover" table is taken from Myers, N., "Tropical forests: present status and future outlook," Climactic Change 19 (3-32), 1991.

Pearce correlates forest clearing in West Africa to falling precipitation in the African interior in "Lost Forests Leave West Africa Dry," The New Scientist 1-18-97.

The Amazonian igapň is the subject of Goulding's Amazon-The Flooded Forest, New York: Sterling Publishing Co.,Inc. 1990.
[Buy from Amazon]
Brookfield, H., Potter, L., and Byron, Y. provide a short description of Indonesian peat forests in In Place of the Forest: Environmental and Socio-economic Transformation in Borneo and the Eastern Malay Peninsula (New York: United Nations University Press, 1995), while T. Nishizawa and J. I. Uitto, eds. (The Fragile Tropics of Latin America: Sustainable Management of Changing Environments, New York: United Nations University Press, 1995) review Latin American forest types.

Threats to mangrove forest from shrimp aquaculture and oil activities are examined in Moffat, D. and Lindén, O., "Perception and Reality: Assessing Priorities for Sustainable Development in the Niger River Delta," Ambio Vol. 24 No. 7-8 (527-538), Dec. 1995; and Boyd, C.E. and Clay, J.W., "Shrimp Aquaculture and the Environment" Scientific American. Vol. 278, No. 6 June 1998, respectively.

 

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27

 







For kids

Tour: the Amazon

Rainforest news

Tour: Indonesia's rainforests

 Home
 What's New
 About
 Rainforests
   Mission
   Introduction
   Characteristics
   Biodiversity
   The Canopy
   Forest Floor
   Forest Waters
   Indigenous People
   Deforestation
   Consequences
   Saving Rainforests
   Amazon
   Borneo
   Congo
   New Guinea
   Sulawesi
   REDD
   Country Profiles
   Statistics
   Works Cited
   For Kids
   For Teachers
   Photos/Images
   Expert Interviews
   Rainforest News
  Forest data
   Global deforestation
   Tropical deforestation
   By country
   Deforestation charts
   Regional forest data
   Deforestation drivers
 XML Feeds
 Pictures
 Books
 Education
 Newsletter
 Contact

Nature Blog Network



 CONTENTS
Rainforests
Tropical Fish
News
Madagascar
Pictures
Kids' Site
Languages
TCS Journal
About
Archives
Topics | RSS
Newsletter




 Other languages
Arabic
Bengali
Chinese (CN) (expanded)
Chinese (TW)
Croatian
Danish
Dutch
Farsi
French (expanded)
German (expanded)
Greek
Hindi
Hungarian
Indonesian
Italian
Japanese (expanded)
Javanese
Korean
Malagasy
Malay
Marathi
Norwegian
Polish
Portuguese (expanded)
Russian
Slovak
Spanish (expanded)
Swahili
Swedish
Ukrainian



 WEEKLY NEWSLETTER
 Email:


 INTERACT
Facebook
Twitter
Contact
Help
Photo store
Mongabay gear




what's new | rainforests home | for kids | help | madagascar | search | about | languages | contact

Copyright Rhett Butler 1994-2013

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generated from mongabay.com operations (server, data transfer, travel) are mitigated through an association with Anthrotect,
an organization working with Afro-indigenous and Embera communities to protect forests in Colombia's Darien region.
Anthrotect is protecting the habitat of mongabay's mascot: the scale-crested pygmy tyrant.

"Rainforest" is used interchangeably with "rain forest" on this site. "Jungle" is generally not used.