21.1% —or about 11,943,000 hectares—of Botswana is forested.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Botswana lost an average of 118,300 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 0.86%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 9.5% to 0.94% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Botswana lost 12.9% of its forest cover, or around 1,775,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Botswana lost 3.7% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Botswana has some 900 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.8% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 1.7% are threatened. Botswana is home to at least 2151 species of vascular plants, of which 0.8% are endemic. 18.1% of Botswana is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Botswana pictures


Botswana: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)56,673,000
Total Forest Area (ha)11,943,000
Percent Forest Cover21.07%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest-
Primary Forest, % total land-
Other wooded land (ha)34,791,000

Botswana : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Botswana: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)--
Modified natural (ha | %)--
Semi-natural (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)--

Botswana: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)13,718,000
Forest 2000 (ha)12,535,000
Forest 2005 (ha)11,943,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(118,300)-0.86%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(118,400)-0.94%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(1,775,000)-12.94%
Change in rate (%)9.53%
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)-
Primary 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)34,791,000
Other 2000 (ha)34,791,000
Other 2005 (ha)34,791,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)-
Other 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)48,509,000
Other 2000 (ha)47,326,000
Other 2005 (ha)46,734,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(118,300)-0.24%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(118,400)-0.25%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(1,775,000)-3.66%
Change in rate (%)2.59%

Botswana: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.00%

Botswana: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)71.0%
Private (%)5.0%
Other (%)24.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)71.0%
Private (%)5.0%
Other (%)24.0%
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)-
Protection (%)-
Conservation (%)-
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)-
None of Unknown (%)-

Botswana: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)-
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Botswana: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20051
World Heritage sites, 20041
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land18.1%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land7.82%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 200410.22%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 200412.02%

Botswana: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species28
endemic species0
threatened species0
total species570
endemic species3
threatened species9
total species169
endemic species0
threatened species6
total species133
endemic species4
threatened species0
Wildlife diversity
total species900
endemic species7
threatened species15

Botswana: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species-
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic17
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened0

Botswana: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)228
Below-ground biomass (M t)55
Dead wood (M t)-
Total (M t)-
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)114
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)27
Carbon in dead wood (M t)-
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)132
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)749
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)881
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)n.s.
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)-
Wood fuel (US$)-
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)-
Total value ($USD/ha)$-
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed-

Botswana : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Botswana: Environment
Environment - current issuesovergrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility

Botswana: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 0.65%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 99.34% (2001)
Natural resourcesdiamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver

Botswana: Economy
Economy - overview:Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $10,100 in 2005. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP and for 70-80% of export earnings. Tourism, financial services, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. On the downside, the government must deal with high rates of unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially is 23.8%, but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection rates are the second highest in the world and threaten Botswana's impressive economic gains. An expected leveling off in diamond mining production overshadow long-term prospects.
GDP - per capita$10,100 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)4.5% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productslivestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 2.4%, industry: 46.9% (including 36% mining), services: 50.7% (2003 est.)
Industries diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing; textiles
Economic aid - recipient$73 million (1995)
Debt - external$556 million (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)30.3% 47% (2003)
Labor force - by occupation (%)NA

Botswana: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)1,640,115
Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.00%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)2.8
Percent rural (2003)48.4%
Median age (years)total: 19.29 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)2.85 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%

Largest Cities in Botswana

Cities and urban areas in Botswana with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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