33.5% —or about 2,099,000 hectares—of Lithuania is forested. Of this, 1.2% —or roughly 26,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Lithuania gained an average of 7,500 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual reforestation rate of 0.39%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 102.8% to 0.78% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Lithuania gained 7.9% of its forest cover, or around 154,000 hectares. Lithuania lost 6,000 hectares—0—of its primary forest cover during that time. Deforestation rates of primary cover have increased 30.0% since the close of the 1990s. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Lithuania gained 7.1% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Lithuania has some 316 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.0% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 2.8% are threatened. Lithuania is home to at least 1796 species of vascular plants. 9.2% of Lithuania is protected under IUCN categories I-V.


Lithuania: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)6,268,000
Total Forest Area (ha)2,099,000
Percent Forest Cover33.49%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)26,000
Primary Forest, % total forest1.24%
Primary Forest, % total land0.41%
Other wooded land (ha)77,000

Lithuania : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)0%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)100%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Lithuania: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)26,0001.2%
Modified natural (ha | %)1,548,00073.7%
Semi-natural (ha | %)384,00018.3%
Production plantation (ha | %)100,0004.8%
Production plantation (ha | %)41,0002.0%

Lithuania: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)1,945,000
Forest 2000 (ha)2,020,000
Forest 2005 (ha)2,099,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)7,5000.39%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)15,8000.78%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)154,0007.92%
Change in rate (%)102.84%
Primary 1990 (ha)20,000
Primary 2000 (ha)21,000
Primary 2005 (ha)26,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)1000.50%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)1,0004.76%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)6,00030.00%
Change in rate (%)852.38%
Other 1990 (ha)80,000
Other 2000 (ha)83,000
Other 2005 (ha)77,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)3000.38%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(1,200)-1.45%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(3,000)-3.75%
Change in rate (%)-485.54%
Other 1990 (ha)124,000
Other 2000 (ha)137,000
Other 2005 (ha)141,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)1,3001.05%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)8000.58%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)17,00013.71%
Change in rate (%)-44.30%
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)1,901,000
Other 2000 (ha)1,966,000
Other 2005 (ha)2,035,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)6,5000.34%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)13,8000.70%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)134,0007.05%
Change in rate (%)105.29%

Lithuania: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)26,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)26,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.41%

Lithuania: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)77.3%
Private (%)22.7%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)69.9%
Private (%)30.1%
Other (%)0.0%
Designated functions of forest � primary function 2005
Production (%)70.3%
Protection (%)9.8%
Conservation (%)8.9%
Social Services (%)3.2%
Multiple Services (%)7.8%
None of Unknown (%)-

Lithuania: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.00%
Insects (ha)1.53%
Diseases (ha)0.69%
Other (ha)3.76%

Lithuania: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20055
World Heritage sites, 20042
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land9.2%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land2.23%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20046.85%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.01%

Lithuania: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species12
endemic species0
threatened species0
total species227
endemic species0
threatened species4
total species71
endemic species0
threatened species5
total species6
endemic species0
threatened species0
Wildlife diversity
total species316
endemic species0
threatened species9

Lithuania: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species24
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic0
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened0

Lithuania: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)210
Below-ground biomass (M t)48
Dead wood (M t)21
Total (M t)279
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)105
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)24
Carbon in dead wood (M t)10
Carbon in litter (M t)50
Soil carbon (M t)151
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)5,881
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)1,846
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)7,727
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)2
Plant products 2005
Food (t)3,800
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)50
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)3,000
Exudates (t)0
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)30,000
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)1,250
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$191,633,000
Wood fuel (US$)$17,377,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)$2,059,000
Total value (US$)$211,069,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$101
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed14,000

Lithuania : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Lithuania: Environment
Environment - current issuescontamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Natural hazardsNA

Lithuania: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 45.22%
permanent crops: 0.91%
other: 53.87% (2001)
Natural resourcespeat, arable land

Lithuania: Economy
Economy - overview:Lithuania, the Baltic state that has conducted the most trade with Russia, has slowly rebounded from the 1998 Russian financial crisis. Unemployment dropped from 11% in 2003 to 5.3% in 2005. Growing domestic consumption and increased investment have furthered recovery. Trade has been increasingly oriented toward the West. Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade Organization and joined the EU in May 2004. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities, particularly in the energy sector, is nearing completion. Overall, more than 80% of enterprises have been privatized. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy.
GDP - per capita$13,700 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)6.4% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productsgrain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 5.7%, industry: 32.4%, services: 62% (2005 est.)
Industries metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber
Economic aid - recipient$228.5 million (1995)
Debt - external$10.47 billion (31 December 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)NA
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 20%, industry 30%, services 50% (1997 est.)

Lithuania: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)3,596,617
Population growth rate (%) (2005)-0.30%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)55.2
Percent rural (2003)33.3%
Median age (years)total: 37.83 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.19 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Lithuanian 83.4%, Polish 6.7%, Russian 6.3%, other or unspecified 3.6% (2001 census)

Largest Cities in Lithuania

Cities and urban areas in Lithuania with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World�s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

Tropical rainforest information

 World Rainforests
 Rainforest Structure
 Rainforest Biodiversity
 Forest Floor
 Rainforest Waters
 Indigenous People
 Global Importance

 Rainforest Conservation
 Country Reports update soon
 Deforestation Tables
 The Amazon Rainforest update soon
 The Congo Rainforest update soon
 Deforestation in Brazil
 Rainforest Images

Mongabay Rainforests
Mongabay News
Mongabay Photos

what's new | rainforests home | help support the site | madagascar | search | about | contact

Copyright Rhett Butler 1994-2006

"Rainforest" is used interchangeably with "rain forest" on this site.
Same for "rainforests" and "rain forests". "Jungle" is generally not used.