REFERENCES and NOTES
The opening quotation is from D.W. Orr's Earth in Mind: On Education, Environment, and the Human Prospect, Washington,
D.C.: Island Press, 1994.
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The opening quotation comes from David Quammen's Wild Thoughts from Wild Places (New York: Scribner, 1998).
The scarcity of wild places today is the theme of David Quammen's Wild Thoughts from Wild Places (New York: Scribner,
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Worldwide rainforest fragmentation is documented by M. McKloskey in "Note on the Fragmentation of Primary
Rainforest," Ambio 22 (4), June: 250-51 1993 using analysis of satellite images.
Deforestation rates and tropical forest cover are taken from the latest State of the World's Forests 1999 (SOFO)
published by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Australia's rainforest coverage during the most recent ice ages is discussed in M. Hopkins and P. Reddell (Australia's
CSIRO 1998) and van Osterzee (Where Worlds Collide, New York: Cornell University Press. 1997 [Purchase]). T.F. Flannery (The
Future Eaters, New York: Braziller 1995 [Purchase]) also discusses vegetation shifts wrought by climate change and human influences.
Van Osterzee (Where Worlds Collide, New York: Cornell University Press, 1997 [Buy from Amazon]), Quammen (The Song of the Dodo, New
York: Scribner 1996. [Buy from Amazon]), and Browne (The Secular Ark: Studies in the History of Biogeography, New Haven: Yale University
Press 1983 [Buy from Amazon]) provide an easily understandable review of the Wallace line biogeography including the current distribution
of flora and fauna in the region and the impact of changing sea levels. Rubeli (Tropical Rainforest in South-East
Asia, Kuala Lumpur: Tropical Press Sdn. Bhd., 1986.) discusses the link between flora of New Zealand, the Himalayas,
The history of the Amazon River Basin is covered engagingly in Goulding (Amazon-The Flooded Forest, New York: Sterling
Publishing Co., Inc. 1990 [Buy from Amazon]).
The mechanism responsible for the worldwide decline in amphibian populations is debated by Lips ("Decline
of a montane amphibian fauna," Conservation Biology Vol. 12 No. 1 (106-117), Feb. 1998.), Sessions et. al.
(Sessions, S.K. Franssen, R.A., Horner, V.L., "Morphological Clues from Multilegged Frogs: Are Retinoids to
Blame?" Science 284 (5415) 1999), Tangley ("The Silence of the Frogs," U.S. World and News Report
8/3/98), and Tuxill ("The Latest News on the Missing Frogs," World Watch May/June 1998). For alternative
commentary from an unlikely source see M. Fumento ("With Frog Scare Debunked, It Isn't Easy Being Green,"
The Wall Street Journal 5/12/99).
The "Primary Cover versus Total Forest Cover" table is taken from Myers, N., "Tropical forests:
present status and future outlook," Climactic Change 19 (3-32), 1991.
Pearce correlates forest clearing in West Africa to falling precipitation in the African interior in "Lost
Forests Leave West Africa Dry," The New Scientist 1-18-97.
The Amazonian igap� is the subject of Goulding's Amazon-The Flooded Forest, New York: Sterling Publishing
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Brookfield, H., Potter, L., and Byron, Y. provide a short description of Indonesian peat forests in In Place of
the Forest: Environmental and Socio-economic Transformation in Borneo and the Eastern Malay Peninsula (New York:
United Nations University Press, 1995), while T. Nishizawa and J. I. Uitto, eds. (The Fragile Tropics of Latin
America: Sustainable Management of Changing Environments, New York: United Nations University Press, 1995) review
Latin American forest types.
Threats to mangrove forest from shrimp aquaculture and oil activities are examined in Moffat, D. and Lind�n,
O., "Perception and Reality: Assessing Priorities for Sustainable Development in the Niger River Delta,"
Ambio Vol. 24 No. 7-8 (527-538), Dec. 1995; and Boyd, C.E. and Clay, J.W., "Shrimp Aquaculture and the Environment"
Scientific American. Vol. 278, No. 6 June 1998, respectively.