Africa Environmental References
The opening quote comes from Wilson (The Diversity of Life, Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1992).
Some information for each country profile comes from CIA World Book 1992-1997, the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED), the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and the World Conservation
Monitoring Center (WCMC), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) State of the World's Forest
1997 (SOFO), and the International Tropical Timber Organization reports (ITTO) 1996-1999.
Associated Press, "African Leaders Want World Bank to Support, Not Dictate," 1/24/98.
EDF, "Making the Label Stick," The Environmental Defense Fund, 1997
Fisher-Thompson, J., "Congress Hears 'Alarm Bell' for Central African Forests," USIA, 3/21/97.
Landes, D., The Wealth and Poverty of Nations New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1998.
Pearce, Fred. "Lost Forests Leave West Africa Dry." The New Scientist. 1-18-97.
Raybould, A., "Asia, Europe, and Africa's CFA Franc" Reuters, 2/2/98.
Xinhua., "FAO Calls for Agricultural Policy Changes in Sub-Saharan Africa," 2/13/98.
Okamba, L., "No end to Angola Oil Enclave's War," Associated Press 1996.
Benin Report: Document prepared for the United Nations Conference of the Environment and Development (1992), UNCED
National Reports, Jun 1991.
Dennison, S., Murray, G,, Booth, G., Burundi biological diversity and tropical forest assessment. Program USAID-Tropical
Forest and Biological Diversity Assessments, Jan. 1989.
Associated Press. "Cameroon bans hardwood exports." 7/1/99.
Gartlan, S., "Conservation of Forest Ecosystems of Cameroon" (translated from French), Program: Conservation
of Forest Ecosystem Studies-IUCN, 1989.
Horta, K., "Makings of a New Ogoniland?" Environmental Defense Fund, March 1997.
Hecketsweiler, Phillipe. "Conservation of Forest Ecosystems of the Congo" (translated from French). Program:
Conservation of Forest Ecosystem Studies-IUCN. 1990.
Ngangoue, Nana Rosine. Congo-Environment: Can't See the Wood for the Felled Trees. InterPress Service. 9/10/95.
Cote d' Ivoire:
Biological Diversity Guide to Ivory Coast (translated from French). Biological Diversity profiles-WCMC. Commission
of the European Committee; WCMC, Cambridge, UK. 1991.
Bunce, M. "Ivorian Cocoa Seen on Long-Term Uptrend." Reuters. 12/5/97.
Reuters. Ivory Coast Acts to Curb Illegal Timber Felling. 8/30/96.
Fa, J.E., "Conservation of Forest Ecosystems of Equitorial Guinea" (translated from Spanish), Program:
Conservation of Forest Ecosystem Studies-IUCN, 1991.
Knight, D., "Gabon: Forest Council Takes Action," Reuters, 11/18/97.
IPS. "Forest Council Acts to Decertify Logging," Inter Press Service. 11/20/97.
UNCED: Environment and Development in Ghana-Ghana national report. 1991.
Guinea: Conservation of Biological Diversity. Biological Diversity profiles-WCMC. 1988.
Barnard, C., "Trouble in Paradise," Africa-Environment and Wildlife, Vol 2, No. 1. Jan/Feb 1994.
Bradt, H., Guide to Madagascar, Globe Pequot Press, Old Saybrook, CT., 1994.
Burger, M. and Price, C., "Madagascar's Unique Reptiles and Amphibians," Africa-Environment and Wildlife,
Vol 4, No. 1. Nov/Dec 1996.
Godfrey, L. R.; Jungers, W. L.; Reed, K. E.; Simons, E. L., "Primate Subfossils: Inferences about Past and
Present Primate Community Structure," from Environmental Change in Madagascar, Patterson, Goodman, and Sedlock,
Madagascar Environmental Action Plan. National Environmental Action Plans-World Bank and USAID. Jul 1988.
Robinson, K., "The blessings of Biodiversity," San Francisco Chronicle, 1/19/00.
Oxford, P. and Bish, R., "Spirits of the Forest, the Lemurs of Madagascar," Africa-Environment and Wildlife,
Vol. 4, No. 6. Jan/Feb 1996.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Report WP/98, World Population Profile: 1998, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
Moffat, D. and Lindén, O., "Perception and Reality: Assessing Priorities for Sustainable Development
in the Niger River Delta," Ambio Vol. 24 No. 7-8 (527-538), Dec. 1995.
UNCED. "Achieving sustainable development in Nigeria." UNCED National Reports. 1991.
Fimbel, C. and Fimbel, R. "Rwanda: The role of local participation." Conservation Biology Vol. 11 No.
2 (309-310), Apr. 1997.
Wolanski, E. "Rwanda National Parks Dying." 1/5/96.
Sao Tome and Principe:
Jones, Burlison, Tye. Conservation of forest ecosystems in the Democratic republic of Sao Tome and Principe. Program:
Conservation of Forest Ecosystem Studies-IUCN. 1991.
Senegal: Conservation of biological diversity and forest ecosystems. Biological Diversity profiles-WCMC. 1989.
Tanzania: Conservation of biological diversity and forest ecosystems. Biological Diversity profiles-WCMC. 1988.
Stone, Paula; Dalal-Clayton, Barry; et al. "Environmental Synopsis of Uganda 1992. Program: Environmental
Synopsis-ODA, ECC, AIDAB.
Uganda: Conservation of biological diversity and forest ecosystems. Biological Diversity profiles-WCMC. 1988
A.P. "Congo Park Torn by War Opens for Badly Needed Tourist Dollars." Associated Press. 10/2/97.
Biswas, A.K. and Tortajada-Quiroz, H.C. "Environmental impacts of Rwandan refugees on Zaire." Ambio Vol.
25 No 6. (403-408), Sept. 1996.
D'Emilio. "UNESCO names world's cultural treasures, endangered sites." A.P. 12/4/97.
Hart, T.B. and Hart, J.A. "Zaire: new models for an emerging state." Conservation Biology Vol. 11 No
2. (308-309) Apr. 1997.
Myers, N. "Tropical Forests: Present Status and Future Outlook." Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Reuters 1997. "Urgent Action Said Vital to Save Congo Wildlife." 7/24/97.
Reuters 1996. Sudan's Civil War Threatens Zaire's Wildlife with Extinction. 2/14/96.
Zaire: Conservation of biological diversity. Biological Diversity profiles-WCMC. 1988.
"Zaire Forest policy revision." TFAP-FAO 1988. 375. 1988.
"Zaire Tropical forestry Action plan." Tropical Forestry Action Program-FAO. 1990.
Wolanski, E. "Rwanda National Parks Dying." 1/5/96.