Richard Spruce's opening quotation (made aroud 1850) is found in One River (New York: Touchstone, 1996) by Wade Davis.
The River of Hunger is a name used by Davis, W. in One River (New York: Touchstone, 1996) for the Rio Negro in Brazil. The name originated from Indigenous people living around this blackwater river. Davis goes on to contrast the blackwater Rio Negro with the whitewater Amazon.
The flowering and pollination of the Amazonian water lily is described in Attenborough, D. (The Private Life Of Plants, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1995); Goulding, M. (Amazon-The Flooded Forest New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 1990); and Davis, W. (One River, New York: Touchstone, 1996).
Goulding, M. (Amazon-The Flooded Forest New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 1990) is the source for the number of species and individuals in a floating meadow.
The ecology of the tambaqui is discussed in Amazon-The Flooded Forest (New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 1990) by M. Goulding.
Oil operations in the Niger River Delta are examined in Moffat, D. and Lindén, O., "Perception and Reality: Assessing Priorities for Sustainable Development in the Niger River Delta," Ambio Vol. 24 No. 7-8 (527-538).
Pakenham, T. (The Scramble for Africa, New York: Avon Books, 1991) provides the history of the European discovery of the Niger River.
Forbath, P. conveys the greatness and rich history of the Congo (Zaire) River in The River Congo, Boston: Houghtin Mifflin Company, 1977.
Goulding, M. (The Fishes and the Forest. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1980) finds that numerous fish species are important seed dispersers in the flooded forest and warns that clearing of vàrzea forests could reduce their populations. He also reports that over three-quarters of the fish important in commerce and subsistence depend directly or indirectly on flood-plain forests for food.